congregation on 2 December
1565 and the couple donated funds to support the Church.157 The epitaph on
Katherine’s death by Robert Masson, a minister of the French Church, may
have been written in recognition of her support.158
Both Anne and Katherine’s religious networks stretched beyond the capital.
Katherine was in contact with the Scots Presbyterian Andrew Melville, as
demonstrated by his epitaph on her death, and Anne’s networks stretched
into Europe, as shown by her correspondence with Theodore de Bèze in
1581.159 In the 1580s the Genevan community was undergoing severe
The nineteenth-century roots of segregationist folk theology in the American South
Stephen R. Haynes
In March 1965 a new church was founded in Memphis, Tennessee. Although there was no shortage of churches in the city, it became necessary to launch a new congregation, because racial conflict had precipitated a split at the 3,500-member Second Presbyterian church when it became clear that hardline segregationists were no longer welcome there. The issue had been whether the church's Session – its board of lay leaders – should admit groups of black and white students who had come intending to worship on about a dozen occasions between March 1964
as sickness and death. In this way oral and print traditions interacted in
the popular activity of singing which also articulated group identity by
focusing on congregations and families in the dissenting world while at the
same time conveying messages about correct ways of interpreting experience
If Protestantism in all its forms used printed books as a way of giving shape to
the religious impulse, Catholicism used a wider range of devotional aids.
Saints’ cults and sacramentals supplemented the main devotional activity of
the mass but at
alehouse legislation was accompanied by a rising tide of religious anti-drink literature. That alehouses posed a secular threat to the ideological power of religion had
long been recognised. Following the publication of the Bible in English,
Thomas Cranmer had sent a declaration to be read to congregations,
forbidding any ‘open reasoning’ on scripture ‘in your open taverns
or alehouses … and other places, unmet for such conference’.1 ‘Open
reasoning’ was a threat to ecclesiastical power, and alehouses – democratic by nature – were no place to fathom the mysteries of
Freethinking feminists and the renunciation of religion
especially important for female Secularists, whose
experiences of feminist politicisation were closely bound up with the new
anti-religious mindsets born out of their counter-conversions. For women,
the counter-conversion process often appeared as a journey of
self-realisation in which freedom from the intellectual bondage of
superstition became a template for a more general emancipation from sexual
oppression. Appropriating the
its first service in the Labour Temple on 8 July 1918. Like its
forerunners across the seas, it allowed for a broad range of religious
beliefs and appropriated and adapted existing ‘religious forms
and ceremonies’. 192 Like the British Labour Church it also experienced
tension between secular and religious elements within the broader
congregation. This fissure only became acute once the unifying force of
36 ADN, Ms 20H-40, Writings on Love, item 4.
37 More, in Augustine Baker (ed.), The Spiritual Exercises of the Most
Vertuous and Religious D. Gertrude More of the holy Order of S. Bennet
and the English Congregation of our ladies of Comfort in Cambray, she
called them Amor ordinem nescit, And Ideots Devotions, Paris, 1658,
pp. 139 and 150, respectively.
38 CRS Misc. XI, Ghent, pp. 33 and 35, respectively.
39 Ibid., p. 24.
40 CRS Misc. V, Neville, pp. 52–3.
41 CRS Misc. XI, Ghent, p. 18.
42 See for instance Robert Muchembled, Culture populaire et
Alison I. Beach, Shannon M.T. Li and Samuel S. Sutherland
Book Four opens with the election in 1116 of a successor for Abbot Theodoric. Here the chronicler offers a view of the perils of such moments of transition in the life of a religious community. The process of selecting a new superior could expose and exacerbate existing internal divisions and tensions, and could sometimes lead to bitter discontent and schism. Abbatial elections could also invite attempts, in this case by Bishop-elect Ulrich I, to pressure, influence, and increase control. The chronicler’s account of the process, and particularly
for the early representation and subsequent prominent role of Jews in the town’s governance. 11
In 1951, Rabbi Eugene Newman of the Portsmouth congregation extended, along the Hampshire coast, the geographical scope of his community’s civic and religious virtues during the nineteenth century. He focused on the ‘other’ Emanuel family ‘which produced Mayors and Wardens of Southampton and Portsmouth’:
Michael Emanuel (1767–1838) was a leading figure in the Portsmouth Community for over three decades. He had several
); Jenkins, Agricultural Community, p. 239. For the
Loughor incident: Welsh Gazette (19 January 1905); British Weekly (19
January 1905), 403. For examples of confrontations between ministers and
their congregations cf. ‘Awstin’, Religious Revival in Wales, no. 1, pp. 5, 28–
9, 30; no. 2, pp. 12, 14; no. 3, p. 26; no. 4, p. 24; no. 6, pp. 14, 18, 24; Jones,
Rent Heavens, p. 56; Morgan, Revival, pp. 42, 184, 186; NLW, Calvinist
Methodist Archives General Collection 28, 678: Capel Rehoboth, Taliesin,
‘Atgofion am y Diwygiad’, 11; [Thesbiad], ‘Diwygiad a’r Weinidogaeth’, Y