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population in Pakistan do not hold extremist beliefs and artists can work to combat the extremists.48 The building of a community of artists is increasingly important, as crisis continues to surround many aspects of life in Pakistan: a crisis for women which encroaches on a woman’s right to be herself and to choose what she wants to do with her life, with her body and with her future; a crisis for minorities or religious groups; an urban/rural clash; the devastation of large areas of Pakistan by environmental change and natural disasters; and the crisis of borders. In the

in Art and human rights
Resurrected ghosts, living heroes and saintly saviours on the 3rd Floor, 1987–9 4

harvesting progressive visions within existing political discourses and realizing them in art. I argue that while the 3rd Floor was a product of the perestroika period, nevertheless the autonomy of art supported by the ‘painterly real’ was what allowed the movement to surpass the conditions in which it operated and secured the longevity of its aesthetic and discursive life beyond the limited period of its activities. What follows is not a comprehensive history of the 3rd Floor, an undertaking that would require a more detailed and intricate analysis of the movement

in The political aesthetics of the Armenian avant-garde
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J.W.M. Hichberger

The Crimean war, as we have seen, was used as evidence of the aristocracy’s ‘unfitness’ to rule the army. The middle classes increasingly claimed the right to a voice in its administration, and the system of purchase once more came under attack. It was the ranks which were the chief focus of middle-class agitation. The daily life of the common soldier was examined in a

in Images of the army
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The modern sports of cycling and motor racing

Futurists Plagiarised in France’. Here, as well as attacking critics for denying futurism the respect that he felt was owed, he laid the groundwork for his attempt to differentiate cubist and futurist portrayals of motion: ‘Italian Futurist painting has enriched the object, grasping it in the environment – that is to say, living it in its life: which is motion.’49 In the same essay, Boccioni proposes 27 Sport and modernism in the visual arts in Europe a ‘religious intoxication for the new’ that Marinetti was to pick up on three years later in his essay ‘The New Ethical

in Sport and modernism in the visual arts in Europe, c. 1909–39

dealt with on a daily basis. Other requests included meeting with a sorely missed friend, or having dinner with a former husband. These are occasions on which a person’s physical presence is commonly regarded as indispensable, on which one cannot be substituted by anyone else. Possibly, the poetic audacity of the idea evoked in the advertisement could only beckon equally audacious counter-requests. In both projects, the artist creates an overlap between the artistic sphere and the sphere of social life through the figuration of the stand-in. In Where We Are Not, it is

in The gestures of participatory art

toughest place, and perhaps most often in tough places, beauty happens’.180 For many, the character’s belief in a ‘life behind things’ confirmed the barely veiled religious message of the film as a whole. Common terms used in the reception of American Beauty at the time included poetry and joy, as well as epiphany, transcendence, enlightenment and redemption. As critic Gary Hentzi pointed out, the film encourages us to identify with this scene’s narrator and his adolescent combination of pretentiousness and naivety.181 The fact that many reviewers happily did points to a

in Almost nothing

from the mundane and homogeneity, draws it apart and marks it as distinct and isolated. To observe this process, we might look to Thomas Mann’s novel The Magic Mountain (Der Zauberberg), where, similarly, a dichotomy is presented between the deteriorating and decaying world of everyday life in the flatlands below and an attempted escape into the rarefied atmosphere of the Berghof sanatorium high up in the Swiss Alps. [For what is a portrait if not an image detained or set aside that we might continue to observe from behind glass?] In The Magic Mountain, Hans Castorp

in Solvent form
The formation and development of the Walker Art Gallery

Whitworth gallery. Walker was relatively unusual in sponsoring the construction of a gallery during his own lifetime, creating a living memorial for himself in his own city of residence and business (see Figure 12). However, Walker’s philanthropy provoked controversy, and the disputes surrounding the Walker gallery highlight how public gifts could be used to obtain social and political status. Walker’s business interests in the brewing trade made him a controversial political figure in a city riven by sectarian and religious differences. Many saw his philanthropy as a

in High culture and tall chimneys
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Portraits of the monarch in colonial ritual

’. 19 Passing beneath these arches mounted with images of Wilhelmina, the governor-general may well have perceived more acutely than usual that he was the queen's ‘underking’. Celebrations for the Dutch monarchy were great occasions for governors-general. Both official palaces on Java – one on the Koningsplein at Rijswijk in Batavia, the other at the hill station in Buitenzorg to the south of the capital – held life-sized, painted state portraits of the queen on permanent display. The portrait at Buitenzorg hung in the

in Photographic subjects
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-known Italian artist named Agostino Brunias (c. 1730–96).2 Apparently the writer of the Yale memo felt that Brunias’s small, colourful canvases, depicting scenes of Caribbean life in some of the newly acquired territories of Britain’s growing empire and concerned almost exclusively with people of colour, did not reflect the Center’s concern with ‘British’ art; he ticked off his primary arguments in favour of selling the paintings in a terse, itemised list: I would recommend the sale of the Brunias paintings … for the arguments below: 1.  Brunias is not English and very

in Colouring the Caribbean