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David Doyle

some delay in marriage age, and about one in ten never married, while labourers’ families were smaller. Infant mortality was high, and remained so well into the 1920s. But the contrast with Ireland was deep and growing.31 By the twentieth century, one-quarter of women remaining in Ireland who were 20 to 40 before 1936, never married; in America, still 85 per cent of their emigrated contemporaries did so. Among men the contrast was even greater. Irish diaspora Catholicism in North America 219 In the next generation, the non-marrying rate of the American

in Irish Catholic identities
Tracing the transformation of Irish Catholicism through the eyes of a journalist
Patsy McGarry

of tens of thousands of children in residential institutions run by eighteen Catholic religious congregations during the twentieth century. To date, over 15,500 of those children (now adults) have been compensated by the Irish State, receiving an average €63,000 each. The Ryan Commission heard evidence covering the period from 1914, but the bulk of its work addressed the period from the early 1930s to the early 1970s. Accounts of abuse by over 1,700 witnesses, given in relation to 216 institutions, were detailed in the report, which ran to over 2,600 pages. More

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
Irish priests and the unravelling of a culture
Eamon Maher

No Lions in the Hierarchy made a considerable impact when it was first published in 1994. A  priest in the Dublin archdiocese, Dunn had a successful career as a producer of the highly influential religious television programme Radharc, which in the period from 1962 to 1997 was responsible for recording over 400 documentaries filmed in seventy-​five countries, and which covered a vast array of topics that were viewed as being pertinent to the Church of the twentieth century. Sometimes the independent approach adopted by the programme producers caused trouble with

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
Silent and betrayed
Patricia Casey

nineteenth and early twentieth century where some of the gentry, writers and poets were either cradle Catholics or converts and were in a position to bring their intellectual rigour to the understanding of Catholicism there. Included here were John Henry Newman, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Hilaire Belloc, G. K. Chesterton and Evelyn   177 The people in the pews Waugh, along with even current members of the royal family such as the Duchess of Kent and Lord Nicholas Windsor. Indeed, for centuries the dukes of Norfolk have been Catholic. Even in the media there have been some

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
Nils Freytag

, the results are, as a whole, quite meagre, a summary that can be repeated regarding recent folklore research as well, even though the discipline has a long and influential tradition of investigation into witchcraft and superstition. 4 Many nineteenth- and early twentieth-century German folklore and antiquarian studies contain references to relevant contemporary occurrences. Early folklorists interpreted ‘superstition

in Witchcraft Continued
Norman Bonney

century and earlier and continuing manifestations of inter-Christian and religious differences to the present day. Some elements of the oaths such as that for the security of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland and the commitment to exercise law and justice with mercy in all decisions have continued unchanged over 300 years since their inception, but the other elements have had to be adjusted from time to time, mostly without specific legislation, to adapt to other legislation during the preceding reign. A constant theme in these adjustments in the twentieth century was

in Monarchy, religion and the state
Norman Bonney

the legitimacy and stability of the UK constitutional and political system, and given this importance, it is as well that the procedures for installation are examined in more detail. Iain McLean’s What’s Wrong with the British Constitution? (2010) is not as comprehensive a treatment of the role of the monarchy in government as that of Bogdanor, but it raises important issues concerning the perceived political neutrality of the monarchy in the first half of the twentieth century – a perspective which may have some relevance at times of succession when there are

in Monarchy, religion and the state
Leeds Jewish tailors and Leeds Jewish tailoring trade unions, 1876–1915
Anne J. Kershen

proficient organisers and dedicated socialists who steered the union into the twentieth century with a growing membership that, at the time of the 1915 amalgamation, exceeded 3,000. The ULTTU would have seemed a likely candidate to take the lead for Jewish tailoring unionists in the amalgamation discussions, and initially they did attend meetings. However, at the last minute they withdrew, the largely immigrant membership fearing that the new union would not understand their Jewish ways; as one commentator put it, they chose to cling to their ‘stetl origins’. 52 Were the

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
Abstract only
Benjamin J. Elton

‘relentless move to the right’ to a more traditionalist position, which meant that Jacobs’ theology was out of place by the 1960s.24 An investigation of this analysis is bound to form a large part of any examination of the twentieth-century Chief Rabbinate. I look into Brodie’s theology, his scholarship, his relationship with his dayyanim and the role they took in decision-making. I also examine the central thesis that Jacobs’ views would have been at home in the United Synagogue of Hermann Adler and J.H. Hertz, and that a shift towards traditionalism left him in

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
Were they too good for them?
Thomas Bartlett

9 The penal laws against Irish Catholics: were they too good for them? Thomas Bartlett I The question is not entirely facetious. At one time, the penal era of Irish history – roughly 1690 to 1770 – was denounced as a period during which, as an early twentieth-century Irish schoolbook had it, ‘Ireland lay in helpless misery, ground down by an inhuman tyranny – the blackest known to history’.1 During these decades, it was claimed that the Catholic religion was in effect proscribed while Catholic priests were ordered into exile or ruthlessly pursued by ‘priest

in Irish Catholic identities