Irish diaspora studies and women: theories, concepts and new perspectives
D. A. J. MacPherson and Mary J. Hickman
Text, 5 (1991), 3–16.
A. Brah, Cartographies of Diaspora: ContestingIdentities (London: Routledge, 1996), p.
M. J. Hickman, ‘“Locating” the Irish diaspora’, Irish Journal of Sociology, 11 (2002), 16.
M. Scully, ‘The tyranny of transnational discourse: “authenticity” and Irish diasporic
identity in Ireland and England’, Nations and Nationalism, 18 (2012), 122.
M. J. Hickman, ‘Diaspora space and national (re)formations’, Éire-Ireland, 47:1 & 2
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Women and Irish diaspora identities
23 See, for example
centuries which would have an impact on Kosovar
secessionist claims in 1999. The most notable were those claims made
about Serbian and Albanian national identity, although others including
Macedonian and Croatian identity claims would also play an important role
in the region, when turning to the conflicts in Bosnia and Kosovo respectively.
Meanwhile the decline of empires, particularly the Ottoman Empire, and the
rise of a post-Second World War model of Yugoslavia created another politicised layer, which added to the contestation of identity claims. The contested
‘roots’ in exotic ‘other’ traditions tend to carry negative associations and
to be keenly contested. Migration and globalisation also function as nodal
points, connecting the discourses on contemporary art to discourses on social
and political issues in society at large. In table 2.1, the concept of migration
functions as an umbrella term for more specialised terms such as forced and
voluntary migration, transnational connections, postcolonial and diasporic
experiences of migration, and nomadism and ‘routes’ (as a shorthand for
identities and a sense of belonging
. 2011. Contesting Citizenship: Irregular Migrants and New Frontiers of the
Political. New York: Columbia University Press.
Meier, D. 2010. “‘Al-tawteen’: The Implantation Problem as an Idiom of the Palestinian
Presence in Post-Civil War Lebanon (1989–2005).” Arab Studies Quarterly 32 (3):
Miller, D. 2000. Citizenship and National Identity. Cambridge MA: Polity Press.
Ong, A. 1999. Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logics of Transnationality. Durham,
NC: Duke University Press.
Peteet, J. M. 1995. “Transforming Trust: Dispossession and Empowerment Among
forge a common national identity among their populations. Where the drive to bring state and nation into correspondence is obstructed, irredentist conflicts tend to destabilise regimes and foster inter-state conflict. Nowhere is the divergence of identity and state sharper than in the Middle East. There popular identification with many individual states has been contested by strong sub- and supra-state identities, diluting and limiting the mass loyalty to the state typical where it corresponds to a recognised nation (Ayoob 1995: 47–70; Hudson 1977: 33
represents an ambition that has asked novel questions of the
capabilities and role of the state. Yet these questions have proved
controversial, and both the purpose and delivery of the policy have been
contested within government. Central to these political debates has been the
extent to which questions of identity matter for a
counter-radicalisation strategy. The purpose of Prevent is to intervene into
processes of radicalisation, but does this entail the state should only
intervene when people are actively becoming radicalised
2 Cultivating identity
Taking people seriously; what you see is what you get
A can of paint can be sold with the slogan ‘It does just what it says on the tin.’ People are more than paint, but what can be seen and heard matters in social life. I have made the democratic empirical assumption that feathers and flags, clothes and gestures, voice and manners, and all the other expressions and features of identity, are not signs of who people are; they are what people, as social beings, are, and constitute their social identity
This chapter will outline the academic
literature that has developed around the Prevent policy. The chapter argues
that, for the most part, the literature has, historically, failed to go
beyond the political debates and policy narratives articulated in the previous chapter . The first section will
demonstrate that the literature has often presented the ‘solution’ to
Prevent to be one of separating its identity and security strands. It is a
literature that therefore, like the policy’s internal debates, positions the
Process (2000): ‘integration means the
ability to participate to the extent that a person needs and wishes in
all the major components of society, without having to relinquish
his or her own cultural identity’.20 This definition was qualified by a
caveat that intergration was, in part, the responsibility of refugees
and, in part, the responsibility of civil society rather than the state.
This suggested a concept of integration which put little onus upon
the state to contest racism and discrimination experienced by
refugees other than the promotion of tolerance:
demand to teach internationalism was contested on the grounds that the
British empire constituted the noblest of international alliances.
Ken Lunn, ‘Reconsidering
“Britishness”: The Construction and Significance of
National Identity in Twentieth Century Britain’, in B.
Jenkins and S. Sofos (eds), Nation and