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France’s inter-war empire: a framework for analysis
Martin Thomas

, from critics of imperial practice across the French political spectrum, and from hostile nation states opposed to a French colonial presence in Africa and Asia. The majority of the French nation were as indifferent to the manifest cruelties of colonial exploitation as to the professed benefits of an empire. Reflecting on his experiences in Madagascar and Indochina before the outbreak of the First World

in The French empire between the wars
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The new Europe takes shape
Kjell M. Torbiörn

and Switzerland and the UK itself. The differences with the EEC were stark: no political ambitions, only free trade among the members; no common customs barrier vis-à-vis third countries; a limited staff with no executive missions or competencies; and the exclusion of agriculture.3 However, hardly was the ink dry on the 1960 Stockholm Convention creating the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), when the United Kingdom began to reconsider. A number of uncomfortable truths were becoming evident. The United Kingdom was no longer a world power, neither politically

in Destination Europe
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The veterans’ riot
Chris Millington

’s own president ­Rossignol was embroiled in Stavisky’s shadowy dealing. Facing the threat of substantial provincial resignations if he remained in office, Rossignol resigned the presidency on 3 February 1934 though he remained an executive member.34 Georges Lebecq, president of the UNC’s Parisian group, agreed to become interim national president until the national congress in May. Lebecq, a small businessman and activist in the Parti démocrate populaire, represented a right-wing fascistic tendency in the UNC. After the riot, his preference for political activism

in From victory to Vichy
Alastair J. Reid

the more critical observers of this process usually acknowledged that such leadership had real advantages for labour organisations. Above all, in situations of political or industrial conflict it was often important to make rapid decisions in the expectation that they would be followed by all sections of the membership, thus improving the chances that actions would be united, well-timed and effective. It soon became obvious that, even in bodies which had frequent elections to official posts, there was a tendency for leaders to serve for long periods, not only

in The tide of democracy
Christopher Duggan

1 Political cults in liberal Italy, 1861–1922 Christopher Duggan The cult of the Duce in Fascist Italy in many respects filled a vacuum. From the time the movement for national unification (the Risorgimento) began in the wake of the French Revolution, a central concern of patriots had been to find a political arrangement that could resonate emotionally with a population of some twenty-five million (largely illiterate) people and bring together an historically fragmented peninsula into a cohesive unit. Giuseppe Mazzini and his democratic followers had looked to

in The cult of the Duce
June 1906–March 1918
Maureen Wright

sharp re-focusing of Elizabeth’s political beliefs towards adult suffrage, events within the wider movement provided the context in which the changes occurred. She was, however, still a member of the entirely anti-party-political WSPU Executive, and she wrote encouraging messages to members through the columns of Votes for Women while Emmeline Pankhurst (following a trial for conspiracy in May 1912) paced her prison cell listening to the cries of her followers as they endured forcible feeding.120 It was the events of 13 July, however, when suffragette Helen Craggs was

in Elizabeth Wolstenholme Elmy and the Victorian Feminist Movement
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J. F. Merritt

Introduction . T he years between 1640 and 1660 were witness to a revolution: from the political breakdown amid popular tumults in 1640–42, civil war, the emergence of parliamentarian regimes, the second civil war and the execution of the monarch, to the republic, the protectorate, the restoration of the republic, struggles between a restored parliament and the army, and the ultimate restoration of the monarchy. Yet almost all the defining events of this dramatic period took place in just a single portion of the capital, defined by the boundaries of the town of

in Westminster 1640–60
Jane Martin

3 Labour politics in London The “Woolwich Pioneer” comes to utter the voice of the Labour Movement of Woolwich. To fulfill its end it must not be the utterance of a single editor, or of a group of journalists, earning their living by expressing their own thoughts or exploiting their own personality. It must be the voice of all in Woolwich who work, all who hope, all who care for the ideals which have given birth to labour movement after movement in the past and the Labour Representation movement of to-day. (Woolwich Pioneer, 1904)1 Socialist Woolwich This is

in Making socialists
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Hugh Cunningham

home but also often stayed there, philanthropy was worldwide and universal in its reach. The political implications of this were profound. All humans, by virtue of being human, had rights. Philanthropy’s task was to ensure that people were able to exercise those rights, even if they were prisoners or slaves. In an age that prided itself on being ‘enlightened and humane’, 1 philanthropy pointed the way to a better future – and Britain, with a statue to John Howard in St Paul’s Cathedral, could claim philanthropy as a component of its national identity. The French

in The reputation of philanthropy since 1750
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The anciens combattants and their associations
Chris Millington

Introduction The anciens combattants and their associations We vowed to each other not to be political and we practiced the only true politics. We made up our minds to do this from the moment it was clear that France no longer had an elite, the republic no longer had leaders, the people had lost faith, society [had lost] its conscience and the patrie was losing its soul … We wanted to operate in France as a moral magistracy outside and above party quarrels … Whether the problems were moral, political, social or economic, we searched for and found solutions, the

in From victory to Vichy