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Reflections on the erosion of a paradigmatic case of social democracy

legacy of the Third Way is exerting a heavy influence on social democracy’s capacity to respond to crisis. The chapter considers three dimensions to this: first, there is the question of ideology and world-view and particularly the way that social democratic ideology has, since the 1990s, been oriented around market making and the middle-class subject; second, there is the question of institutional change and the privatisations and financialisation of the Swedish model; and, third, an issue that is not dealt with specifically in the A paradigmatic case of social

in European social democracy during the global economic crisis

that tacitly handed the game over to big business and the global ‘super rich’ – and short-changed the key constituents of their respective centre-left political parties: the middle class and 112 Citizenship, republicanism and democracy the working class. This was a huge setback for citizens everywhere, as like it or not, conditions in the United States and Great Britain often set the tone for the world economy. For all the excitement in recent years behind the rise of ‘global civil society’ and the impact of online social networks in inspiring new generations of

in Making social democrats
The work of reading

2 ‘Wholesome labour’: the work of reading Wives of the middle and upper classes increasingly became idle drones. They turned household management over to stewards, reduced their reproductive responsibilities by contraceptive measures, and passed their time in such occupations as novel-reading, theatre-going, card-playing and formal visits. Lawrence Stone, The Family, Sex and Marriage in England 1500–18001 It is an old, but a very true observation, that the human mind must ever be employed. A relish for reading, or any of the fine arts, should be cultivated very

in Imagining women readers, 1789–1820
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Representations of leadership in late nineteenth-century British battle painting

figure in these pictures is to be understood depends very much on the context in which the pictures are being viewed. If seen in relation to what might be described as the class struggle for control of the army during the 1870s, it is the officer’s peculiarly middle-class character that is especially apparent. If, on the other hand, they are considered in terms of their composition and narrative

in Popular imperialism and the military 1850–1950
Class and consumption at mid century

awful’?5 Smith’s texts fix the gent very precisely in specific locations, associated with particular leisure activities and patterns of consumption, which worked A ‘Chamber of Horrors’: class and consumption at mid century  137 6.2  Unknown wood engraver after a drawing by Archibald Henning, title letter to chapter 3, ‘Of their Haunts’, wood engraving from Albert Smith, The Natural History of the Idler upon Town (London: D. Bogue, 1848), p. 14. to distance vulgar, disruptive and even revolutionary consumerism from the middle-class reader. However, the

in Novelty fair
Populism, New Humour and the male clerk in Marsh’s Sam Briggs adventures

popular Three Men in a Boat: To Say Nothing of the Dog! (1889). This tale of three clerks’ holiday boat trip down the Thames tapped into a newly flourishing market of lower-­ middle-class white-collar consumers who connected personally with Jerome’s protagonists. As Jonathan Wild suggests, ‘[t]he idyll he defines offers the impression of middle-class ease, in a setting and form of transport familiar to, and within reach of, the majority of young clerks in London.’6 Pioneering the New Humourists’ clerk-as-hero motif, Three Men in a Boat depicts clerks as resilient and

in Richard Marsh, popular fiction and literary culture, 1890–1915
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create inhabitants better suited to the demands of the new urban environment. The harshness of the attack is all the more remarkable because by this time other influences were at work, promoting very much the same changes in behaviour and attitude. In the first place the response to middle-class educational ventures such as the Mechanics Institute, established in 1828, the Working Classes Association (1846) and the Belfast Working Men’s Institute (1866) testifies to the strong impulse towards self-improvement within the culture of the working classes themselves; some

in Civic identity and public space
Class and Gender in Elizabeth Gaskell’s Work

very clear, but which critics have less completely labelled and categorised; this discussion will then serve as a context for a re-reading of the familiar works in subsequent chapters. What emerges from her work as a whole is that at subsistence level, gender-divisions are blurred; women exercise responsibility; men give basic nurturance. In the middle class, ideology heightens differentiation, producing infantilised women and authoritarian men. Working Women Because Elizabeth Gaskell’s studies of working-class life are read as ‘industrial’ novels, criticism has

in Elizabeth Gaskell
The religion of free trade and the making of modern consumerism

of the bazaar.9 And more than half a century later, in his monumental biography of John Bright, G. M. Trevelyan similarly noted that the event ‘astonished that simple era with its magnificence and variety, and paved the way for the great Exhibition of 1851’.10 The bazaar should still command our attention, for it simultaneously celebrated and mobilised the changing consumption practices of an increasingly self-confident metropolitan middle class.11 Rather than search for putative origins of consumer culture, this chapter chiefly considers a vital and largely

in Wanting and having

and 78.5 per cent of them having children.16 In Hamburg in 1925 widows made up 42.2 per cent of social welfare recipients.17 Single women were dependent on their own labour, pensions, inherited wealth or families for their livelihood, with social welfare the safety net. During the Republic, before the onset of the Depression, women outnumbered men as recipients of welfare.18 Their numbers were swollen in the early 1920s by small rentiers, middle-­class widows and unmarried women who had lived on their savings and investments or inherited wealth until their value had

in Women in the Weimar Republic