Portuguese” of the Chinese Athletic Club ’, in E. Morier-Genoud and M. Cahen (eds), Imperial Migrations: Colonial Communities and Diaspora in the Portuguese World ( Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan , 2012 ), pp. 239 – 62 .
16 The National Archives of the United Kingdom (TNA), FO 371/35736, Department of State to Foreign Office, 10 October 1943.
17 N. Wylie , Britain, Switzerland, and the Second World War ( Oxford : Oxford University Press , 2003 ), pp. 337 – 8 .
18 Portugal represented Brazilian interests in Japan and Japanese interests in Mexico
and Girl Soldiers: Women's Lives through War and Peace in Sierra Leone (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009).
L. J. Pruitt, H. Berents and G. Munro, ‘Gender and age in the construction of male youth in the European “migration crisis”’, Signs: Journal of Women and Culture in Society , 43 (2018), pp. 687–709.
producing different political identities and possibilities for peaceful interaction across difference. In doing so, bodies can generate fresh social configurations and political subjectivities. For example, dance has been used as a means to renegotiate group identity and to physically make a claim on space in the face of forced migration. The Banabans are a group of people originally from the island of Banaba, Kiribati. However, the British Phosphate Commissioners forced the Banabans off their land and relocated them to Rabi Island, Fiji. Subsequently, phosphate mining
rather spills over into other
aspects of social identity, such as religion, occupation, or geographic
location, which are part of multiple and overlapping individual and
group networks. Although externally imposed perceptions of African
identity, colonial policies, and labor migration patterns nurtured the rise
of modern-day ethnicity, it now has a distinctly African character that is
just as much shaped by internal forces as the outside world.
As a modern concept ethnicity fulfills several important roles and
functions, such as serving basic individual needs
Thinking about America in the world over the longer run
to his conviction that the English-
speaking peoples constituted a single race, which was a critical category in
his political thinking. However, Carnegie never specified in detail the form of
polity he proposed. Moreover, always happy to be identified as a ‘dreamer’,
he was no ordinary follower of fashion. He viewed migration positively,
opposed the Spanish–American War and wished to see Canada incorporated
into the United States. Equally and perhaps more predictably for an industrialist, he placed great importance on the new technologies that were effectively
In fact, the Jewish–Palestinian division is foundational to Zionism.
Racialized boundaries are engrained in the idea of establishing a homeland for
European Jews through migration and political and military domination of a
country overwhelmingly populated by indigenous Arabs. While the history
and implications of the struggle over Palestine have been the subject of much
scholarly research, this chapter attends to the particular way in which the
separation between Jews and Palestinians was reinforced during the first two
decades of the establishment
quasi-federal union of Canada and the United States, with a common
monetary policy, moderately controlled migration policies and nearly free
trade) the importance of democracy and the ‘rule of law’. Dulles claimed
that what had made America great was its ability to give ‘opportunity to
those who are ambitious and energetic, and we do so largely at the expense
of those who have lost such qualities’, those he deemed ‘the status quo’,
which clearly included the British. For Dulles, what had to be created was an
alternative to war as an
-level education to the people and avoiding migration to the cities. In March 2007, for example, I visited a shopping centre transformed into one of these ‘villages’ in a town in Miranda State. In total according to the government forty-five of these ‘villages’ were inaugurated by January 2007. 111
The government also sought to increase university access for poorer sectors. Enrolment in third-level education increased from 668,109 in 1999 to 1,074,350 by 2006. 112 The government also launched the Bolivarian University to tackle the fall in the
and identity has not remained
static over the centuries; on the contrary, it has evolved. Invasions, migration,
trade and colonization have all left their mark, and also resulted in cultural
syncretism that make it possible for us to speak of global India, not just simply in
terms of the most recent phase of globalization but also in terms of the historical processes that cannot and should not be restricted to the policies and institutions of the Indian state post 1947. The existence of mass poverty does not
mean that India is and has always been ‘backward’, but
). A retired army officer, J. R.
Mukherjee (2005), also argues that inward migration, lack of development and
neglect have caused unrest in Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura. New Delhi must
deal with these issues. He admits, however, that the Mizo Accord of the late
1980s that led to insurgents coming overground and forming the government
has brought peace to the Mizo Hills.
The eleventh Lok Sabha: a microcosm of the nation?
The results of the 1996 general elections reflected the trend towards pluralism
and away from single-party dominance. After four decades of