Thinking about America in the world over the longer run
to his conviction that the English-
speaking peoples constituted a single race, which was a critical category in
his political thinking. However, Carnegie never specified in detail the form of
polity he proposed. Moreover, always happy to be identified as a ‘dreamer’,
he was no ordinary follower of fashion. He viewed migration positively,
opposed the Spanish–American War and wished to see Canada incorporated
into the United States. Equally and perhaps more predictably for an industrialist, he placed great importance on the new technologies that were effectively
In fact, the Jewish–Palestinian division is foundational to Zionism.
Racialized boundaries are engrained in the idea of establishing a homeland for
European Jews through migration and political and military domination of a
country overwhelmingly populated by indigenous Arabs. While the history
and implications of the struggle over Palestine have been the subject of much
scholarly research, this chapter attends to the particular way in which the
separation between Jews and Palestinians was reinforced during the first two
decades of the establishment
quasi-federal union of Canada and the United States, with a common
monetary policy, moderately controlled migration policies and nearly free
trade) the importance of democracy and the ‘rule of law’. Dulles claimed
that what had made America great was its ability to give ‘opportunity to
those who are ambitious and energetic, and we do so largely at the expense
of those who have lost such qualities’, those he deemed ‘the status quo’,
which clearly included the British. For Dulles, what had to be created was an
alternative to war as an
-level education to the people and avoiding migration to the cities. In March 2007, for example, I visited a shopping centre transformed into one of these ‘villages’ in a town in Miranda State. In total according to the government forty-five of these ‘villages’ were inaugurated by January 2007. 111
The government also sought to increase university access for poorer sectors. Enrolment in third-level education increased from 668,109 in 1999 to 1,074,350 by 2006. 112 The government also launched the Bolivarian University to tackle the fall in the
and identity has not remained
static over the centuries; on the contrary, it has evolved. Invasions, migration,
trade and colonization have all left their mark, and also resulted in cultural
syncretism that make it possible for us to speak of global India, not just simply in
terms of the most recent phase of globalization but also in terms of the historical processes that cannot and should not be restricted to the policies and institutions of the Indian state post 1947. The existence of mass poverty does not
mean that India is and has always been ‘backward’, but
). A retired army officer, J. R.
Mukherjee (2005), also argues that inward migration, lack of development and
neglect have caused unrest in Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura. New Delhi must
deal with these issues. He admits, however, that the Mizo Accord of the late
1980s that led to insurgents coming overground and forming the government
has brought peace to the Mizo Hills.
The eleventh Lok Sabha: a microcosm of the nation?
The results of the 1996 general elections reflected the trend towards pluralism
and away from single-party dominance. After four decades of
join the democratic camp in 1991.
Differentiation according to rank can be complemented by differentiation according to role. So, for example, what are the commonalities of
mindset shared by such siloviki as Viktor Kazantsev, Andrei Chernenko,
and Vladimir Putin?
Kazantsev was appointed presidential representative in the Southern
federal district in 2000, having within the previous year commanded
the Russian forces in the field during the second Chechen war.
Colonel-General Andrei Chernenko was appointed the head of the
Federal Migration Service under the
European pattern of internal revolutions, ‘doctrinal-isms, ranging from
legitimism and absolutism to socialism and communism, via nationalism,
ultramontanism and liberalism’, brought major disasters such as two world
wars, Fascism, the Holocaust, Stalinism.62
The new worlds: represented primarily, but not exclusively, by the Americas,
South as well as North. In this group, while modernity was ‘created by early
modern conquest and mass migration, the theoretical and practical struggle
for modernity was largely external, against colonial Europe and by
becomes a source of pride rather than a stigma because
Peña notes: ‘The
much of the population was mestizo’.7 Gómez-
millions of indios, the original proto-Mexicans, were portrayed as
living in a parallel (and mythical) time and space outside our history
and society’ (Ethno-Techno p. 7). Banks argues this was an effective
strategy in consolidating Mexico’s identity: ‘Mexico’s policy of ennobling its indigenous population while simultaneously encouraging
European migration is not inconsistent with the creation of a single
national identity.’8 Across the US
, Geneva Convention III.
190 Article 51, Geneva Convention IV.
191 Article 5(1)(e), AP II.
192 Article 4(2)(f), AP II.
193 Article 1, 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices similar to Slavery.
194 R. Coomaraswamy, Special Rapporteur, ‘Report on trafficking in women, women’s migration and violence against women in accordance with Commission on Human Rights Resolution 1997/44’, Commission on Human Rights, UN Doc. E/CN.4/2000/68, 29 February 2000, paras 18–19, and S. Toepfer and B. Wells, ‘The