3) is undoubtedly marked by the specificities of gender. In the
opening of chapter 2, Fanon – drawing on Sartrean existential phenomenology and Hegelian dialectics – elaborates his approach to the
universality of ‘love’ and ‘gift of self’.57 Does this contradiction imply
that Fanon’s text is inherently sexist and misogynist? Is his discussion
of racial difference at odds with sexual difference? Does Fanon present
interracial desires in homoracial terms? It is easy to dismiss Fanon’s
narrative as sexist and misogynistic, ignore the broad historical and
and social disorder, Ondaatje’s poem also portrays it as a struggle between two styles of being and two modes of perception. This emphasis upon the phenomenology of perception leads Ondaatje to couple his representation of character with an examination of the way subjects come to conceive of their worlds. The literary exploration of consciousness, sensation and intuition provides the ground for many of Ondaatje’s most striking poetic effects; it is also the aspect of the poem that most stubbornly frustrates our conventional habits of reading
progress. Although I am not interested in critiquing Holbrook’s references to phenomenology and psychology, I find it significant that the idea of the pseudo-male (defined as sad by Holbrook, qualified by a giggle in Conrad) is a source of embarrassment in both. It marks that boundary between masculinity and femininity, which The Woman in White produces through Marian’s unspeakably disturbing moustache. Holbrook’s misogynist assertion further draws attention to the presence of the double, which many critics have observed in Plath’s texts. Although Holbrook
Two distinct portraits of a ‘fairy queen’ imply contrary views of human nature and contrary aesthetics. In Spenser’s epic a mystic Gloriana draws noble heroes to realise the twelve virtues, perfecting the soul in Godlikeness. In Shakespeare’s comic stage-play a sensually potent Titania evokes a different fairy realm. Directly experienced, her bodily splendor and witty combative speeches arouse desire not just in the privileged but in rude commoners, who commandeer the play’s most engaging scenes. Instead of vying with Spenser’s elite quests for morality in an intellectual heaven-based allegory, Shakespeare views morality in all social classes, the humbler earthy sort matching the more pretentious. Both are ego-driven yet communally civil. This ironic engagement with Spenser’s ‘supreme fiction’ wondrously expands Shakespeare’s own artistry. Equally polarized are the poets’ views of self-love as a touchstone of human psychology. Like Calvin and Luther, Spenser discredits self-love as shameful, both in monarchs like Lucifera and in louts like Braggadocchio, causing Redcrosse’s wretched fall and Guyon’s helpless faint. In contrast, Shakespeare’s characters, noble and vulgar, show a positive form of self-love if carefully managed, as observed by Aristotle, Aquinas, and Primaudaye.
Hill Blanchot Reader, p. 392.
36 Derrida, Aporias, p. 22.
37 Maurice Blanchot, The Writing of the Disaster, trans. Ann Smock (Lincoln:
Nebraska University Press, 1995), p. 70.
38 Blanchot, The Space of Literature, p. 103.
39 Blanchot, The Station Hill Blanchot Reader, p. 378.
40 Blanchot, The Station Hill Blanchot Reader, pp. 380, 379.
41 G.W.F. Hegel, Phenomenology of Spirit, trans. A.V. Miller (Oxford:
Clarendon, 1979), p. 66.
42 Blanchot, The Station Hill Blanchot Reader, p. 380.
43 Blanchot, The Space of Literature, p. 255.
44 Blanchot, The
Figures of comparison and repetition in Spenser’s Cantos of
Mutabilitie and Donne’s Anniversaries
Milgate (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978), xxxiv.
94 Anniversaries , 239.
95 Lewalski, Donne’s ‘Anniversaries’ and the Poetry of Praise , 50.
96 Anniversaries , 240. See Edward W. Tayler, Donne’s Idea of a Woman: Structure and Meaning in ‘The Anniversaries’ (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991).
97 On allegory in the Anniversaries , see Lewalski, Donne’s ‘Anniversaries’ and the Poetry of Praise , 142–7; also Anniversaries , 293–317.
98 G.W.F. Hegel, The Phenomenology of Spirit , trans. A.V. Miller (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979
abjuration, some very beautiful and splendid
era whose existence rehabilitates us both in regards to ourselves and
in regards to others’.30 Clearly, Fanon reinscribes decolonization within
a Sartrean existential phenomenology, apprehending the colonized’s
beings-for-others beyond an abject and nauseating colonialism. However,
he warns that the essentialism of Negro and Arab intellectuals in their
attempt to rehabitate their past obfuscates the historical specificities
of culture as national, and that the racialization of culture (qua negritude)
and the confusion of culture
hundreds of pairs ended
up on the left half of the body mould, and the other on the right.
Both sides of the bread body were then flipped over. The result
was that the co-ordinates of left and right failed to signify in the
way that we are accustomed to think that they do. They could not
be seen as opposites; nor could they give an observer back their
comfortable bearings. The ‘universal’ of perceiving left from right
was confounded because Gormley made an enantiomorph. Because
the sculpture disrupted the phenomenology of left/right apprehension, intuitions about how we
objective inasmuch as the latter is
ostensibly about the phenomenology of driving per se.
24 See Secure Borders, Safe Haven: Integration with Diversity in Modern
Britain (2002). See: www.archive2.official-documents.co.uk/document/
cm53/5387/cm5387.pdf (accessed April 2012).
25 Shamshad Khan’s poem ‘Manchester Snow’ was written for the ‘Moving
Manchester’ poetry commission and first published in the special issue of
Moving Worlds (2009), edited by Corinne Fowler and Graham Mort.
3970 Postcolonial Manchester:Layout 1
Manchester: the postcolonial