long hours and with mortgages to pay
off, and that feels threatened, culturally and economically, by massmigration.
The parties have struggled to a much lesser degree among the better educated
in salaried occupations, especially if they are in public employment and have
trade union protection, all of which enables them to feel an affinity with the leftwing themes of cosmopolitanism, solidarity and market regulation. Against this
background, both Berlusconi and Trump have been able to make their political
fortunes by articulating the resentment felt by working
Paul Kingsnorth, John Berger and the pros and cons of a sense of place
, 2007 : 117–18). In comparison with Kingsnorth, Berger is concerned with social perspective in the Here and Now rather than with reflections about the end of time; with individual fates rather than with anxieties about lost national identities. In the face of the complex and diverse catastrophes (to which Britain has contributed significantly, as all major European nations have, in the past and the present) which are responsible for today’s massmigration, Kingsnorth asks: ‘What does it mean to be “us” in England? It’s such a big question at the moment because the
rhythms of the Rastafarian communities that had been flourishing on the island from the 1930s (Bradley 2000 ). Over time, this musical form morphed from ska into rocksteady and eventually reggae (Bradley 2000 ).
Reggae was almost exclusively concentrated within Jamaica at first. The country's island status and the low geographical mobility of reggae's ghetto-bound enthusiasts constrained diffusion. Reggae had no means of traversing geographical space. However, massmigration to the UK during the 1950s and 1960s, instigated by a UK government keen to tackle
was a canny Leeds pipe manufacturer aware of a growing Irish market. The use of this pipe to the point of discard suggests that the user could have been Irish or had links to Ireland and, as such, took steps to assert his distinctive identity by using a pipe marked ‘Dublin’.
Massmigration from Ireland in the mid-to-late nineteenth century as a result of famine, economic instability, and rural evictions brought many Irish people to the industrial centres of England and the United States. Historian of medicine Catharine Coleborne has
/preface.html, accessed 10 February 2000, pp. 1-3.
Representations and realities
137 G. Cresciani, ‘The bogey of the Italian fifth column: internment and the
making of Italo-Australia’, in R. Bosworth and R. Ugolini (eds), War,
Internment and MassMigration: The Italo-Australian Experience 1940-1990
(Rome: Gruppo Editoriale Internazionale, 1992), p. 12.
138 Summerfield and Peniston-Bird, Contesting Home Defence, p. 32.
139 SA2002.057, Irene Politi.
140 SA1998.45, Interview with Geraldo Cozzi, 21 August 1998; SA1999.24,
141 SA2002.065, Diana Corrieri.
Cesarani and Kushner (eds), Internment of Aliens; Gillman, ‘Collar the
Lot!’; F. Lafitte, The Internment of Aliens (London: Libris, 1988); Stent, a
Bespattered Page?; Kochan, Britain’s Internees; R. Dove (ed.), Totally UnEnglish? Britain’s Internment of‘Enemy Aliens’ in Two World Wars
(Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2005); Sponza, Divided Loyalties, pp. 95-8. Also Colpi,
Italian Factor, pp. 99-105.
Bosworth and Ugolini (eds), War, Internment and MassMigration; Iacovetta,
Perin and Principe (eds), Enemies Within; Fox, Uncivil Liberties.
K. Itoh, The Japanese Community in Pre
face of uneven economic development’ (Koser and Black 1999 : 524–5) – or, less obliquely, of ever-greater numbers of racialised migrants seeking to settle in western Europe. Indeed, Lucy Mayblin ( 2017 ) links 1980s asylum policy changes even more emphatically to most asylum-seekers from then on coming from former colonies and being racialised as non-white. This evolving history of migration and border control was the background for late-twentieth-century cultural racisms arguing that more massmigration would undermine autochthonous culture (sometimes including
Power, presentation and history in Gravity’s Rainbow
Simon Malpas and Andrew Taylor
miles, sliding away, numb,
indifferent to all momenta but the deepest, the instability too far
below their itchy feet to give a shape to … caravans of Gypsies, axles
or lynchpins failing, horses dying, families leaving vehicles beside the
roads for others to come live in a night, a day … so the populations
move, across the open meadow, limping, marching, shuffling, carried,
hauling along the detritus of an order, a European and bourgeois
order they don’t yet know is destroyed forever. (GR 549–51)
Gravity’s Rainbow depicts the massmigrations taking place at the
Reconstruction, defence and development in town and country
exposure. The relationship between observation and destruction
resonated in discussions about the dispersal of industry and population during and after the war and reflects how conflict had a lasting
influence on perceptions of architecture and landscape.
Evacuation and dispersal
The transformation of rural environments during the war involved
rendering them into reception areas for evacuees, and pastoral sites
of peace in war and reconstruction. The wartime evacuation of cities
was foreseen by planners and architects, who argued that a massmigration away from cities
entrepreneurs were significant: not only did they open some of the first Asian
cafés in the city, they also constituted the first movements on the massmigration chains involving migrants from Pakistan, India and Bangladesh that
expanded during the 1950s, and which laid the foundations for contemporary
Muslim communities in places such as London, Birmingham and Manchester
(Werbner 1990; Ansari 2009). By the early 1950s many of these early migrants
had become established market traders and some of our informants noted
their movement into other business niches. These