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-scale immigration but went into decline before immigration became politicised. The former Christian religious pillars created their own institutions. Each had its own ideologically sensitive organisations; political parties, youth movements, hospitals, newspapers, housing associations, even associations of stamp collectors. Many were either fully or partly state-funded. These pillars were (posthumously) idealised as a multicultural template (Spiecker and Steutel, 2001: 266). But what was sometimes called a Muslim pillar was extremely underdeveloped by comparison with its

in Tolerance and diversity in Ireland, North and South
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Jews in Britain – a historical overview

emancipation – meaning the right of professing Jews to stand as candidates for, and be elected to, the House of Commons. Jews were not the only religious group to be denied this right. Catholics had only won the right in 1829. Unitarians did not then enjoy the right, nor did atheists. The truth was that most British Jews did not consider this subject of much, if any, importance. It was not until 1911 that Members of Parliament received any kind of salary. In the nineteenth century one needed to have a considerable private income in order to pursue a

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
Just war and against tyranny

progenitors of the concept? We need to bear in mind that we are dealing with polemical tracts, whose agenda was to save Protestants being persecuted for religious reasons. 56 As Trim points out, ‘the monarchomach authors conceived of “tyranny” in narrow confessional terms. Roman Catholic regimes were assumed to be tyrannical, because of the way they “oppressed” Protestants’. 57 This included the Pope. Hotman, for instance, characterized Rome as ‘innately, permanently

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
‘Locals’ and ‘Moroccans’ in the Sainte-Foy-Bordeaux vineyards

crystallised in religion, the status of women, and eating practices. At lunch time in the vineyards, the fact that Moroccans neither drink wine nor eat pork pâté is regarded by their fellow workers and bosses, who consider themselves ‘native French’ or ‘European’, as an additional boundary. As we will see, racism suffered by these workers is not confined to the lower classes. The town councillors themselves are no exception, pejoratively calling their small town ‘Marrakech’. The installation of video surveillance cameras, requested by the inhabitants of Sainte

in Alternative countrysides
Anti-Islam and anti-Muslim sentiments

and the abuse of women, however, that features most frequently in the characterisation of Islam as oppressive and intolerant. Jack sums this up as ‘Women are second-class citizens; they have to walk behind their husband.’ The burqa is widely deployed as a symbol of this inequality although it is recognised by a number of respondents that its wearing is a cultural norm rather than a religious requirement. Thus the burqa is described as being imposed by fathers (Jordan) or husbands (Chas, Matt) as a means of control over women: … nowhere in the Qur’an does it say they

in Loud and proud

Protestant and Catholic recruits. Simultaneously, the report’s recommendations increased the number of women in the PSNI through the implementation of a gender quota. The increased number of Catholic recruits transformed the nature of the organisation into a more ‘localised’ force in relation to the Catholic community. One of the report’s recommendations stated that ‘police stations built from now on should have, so far as possible, the appearance of ordinary buildings’. 7 The altered police force (and even the deliberate use of the word ‘service’ rather than ‘force’) was

in Unfinished business
Sexual violence and trauma in the ‘war on terror’

. Bunching these bodies by gender – one portion of the great trilogy (the other two are class and ethnicity) – inevitably leads to a universal femaleness: the woman effaced in religious dogma as inherently inferior is also eradicated in conventional human rights discourse because that discourse is premised on the heterosexual white male. Not only does such a ‘bunching’ 9780719079740_C08.qxd 236 5/8/09 9:24 AM Page 236 ‘War on terror’ enforce the association of ‘woman’ with ‘victim’, but it also serves to relegate one group (male victims of women’s sexual violence

in ‘War on terror’
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. In Seven Winters Elizabeth Bowen describes the ‘minority world’ of Irish Protestants by focusing on different appropriations of space, whereby Roman Catholics became, simply, ‘“the others,” whose world lay alongside ours but never touched’ (Bowen 1995: 508). Similarly, the silent movement of the Jesus Walk through deeply symbolic spaces and historical moments suggested to us the ways in which different value systems may share the same localities and yet be separated from one another by a gulf filled with different meanings, experiences, histories and practices

in Integration in Ireland
Open Access (free)

is a further dimension to Puritanism: it followed from the priesthood of all believers, in that any one of the faithful could, and should, express his or her faith through appearance. The eighteenth century, whilst frequently seen as a time of fading religious enthusiasm whose character was simply emphasised by the contrary zeal of Methodism, began with legislative assertion of religious identity at the pinnacle of public life. No one could ascend to or occupy the throne who was a Roman Catholic, and the monarch must be in communion with the

in Cultivating political and public identity

Census classed 35 per cent of homes as overcrowded, and overcrowding has always been especially severe among large Bengali households. Child poverty has reached 49 per cent, which is considerably worse than in any other UK local authority.5 The relative cheapness of the place, as well as the proximity of the City and of the old London Docks, made the East End a magnet for successive waves of immigrants – including internal migration from more rural parts of Britain. French Huguenots set up their silk looms in seventeenth-century Spitalfields; Irish Catholics worked in

in Class, ethnicity and religion in the Bengali East End