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in 1947 was eventually undermined by its very success. During the years 1958 to 1963, the Italian economy grew at an annual average of 6 per cent, and investment and industrial production more than doubled. Several problems ensued. Territorially the rewards were uneven. The industrial north flourished but, even with an injection of resources, the still predominantly rural south could generate nowhere near the same level of average incomes. High growth, emigration to other EEC states, and migration from the south to the north created nearly full employment, but, as

in Might, right, prosperity and consent
Open Access (free)

active everywhere. And everything is so discernible. As Nulifer Gole put it: “instead of asking for assimilation and equality the Islamists claim differences, much as U.S. Afro-Americans have done … ‘Islam is beautiful like black is beautiful’.” 16 But this might also be misleading, or could be differently interpreted. Most of these believers are migrants from the traditionally religious villages. The construction of transportation and communication networks has eased this migration, which was part of the mighty wave of industrialization and urbanization that has

in Turkey: facing a new millennium

formally inaugurated the raft of measures known as the White Australia policy. This policy, which remained in force until 1967, expressed a key social and political aspiration – an egalitarianism of white male workers from which Aboriginal people were by definition erased. The exclusion of Indigenous people from full legal citizenship and census-taking until overturned by referendum in 1967, after the great influxes of post-war migration, gives some indication of the political realities of this silence and the extent of Aboriginal powerlessness within the Australian

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Andrew Williams

have seemed to disintegrate into arguments about minority rights, the collapse of state structures, the mass and usually forced migration of populations and even worse forms of violence, such as the recent ethnic cleansing seen in the Williams Chapter 8 253 23/10/98, 11:35 am 254 Failed imagination? former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. Is there a necessary opposition between the ‘rights’ of the sovereign state and those of the individual?17 How can you enable peoples to have their independence and dignity, while not denying that to others within the borders occupied

in Failed imagination?

finance for Soviet arms deliveries (Sela 1998: 145). Not just the shared threat but also a shared resource, the new oil wealth from the price boom unleashed by the oil embargo generated interdependence between the Arab states. The expectation that the new wealth would be shared with the states that had fought and sacrificed for the common Arab cause was partly realised by significant transfers of wealth to the latter, the migration of excess labour to the oil producers and the transfer of remittances home. The ‘Arab Cold War’ was decisively buried as the conservative

in The international politics of the Middle East

This section provides, in the style of a dictionary, explanations of significant political events, groupings and developments.

in The politics today companion to West European Politics

detrimental to the maintenance of peace. He also enumerated many additional threats, such as the increase in debt of developing nations, poverty, diseases, famine, oppression, Agenda for peacekeeping 1992–93 89 and the rise in the numbers of refugees, displaced persons and mass migrations of tens of millions of human beings. Boutros-Ghali felt that maintaining a world order comprising countries at peace with one another, and resolving intrastate hazards that threaten this order, would strengthen what he viewed as the positive elements of globalisation. Therefore he felt

in The United Nations and peacekeeping, 1988–95

As all states have become affected by challenges that reach far beyond the scope of single nation-states – from climate change to ­migration and terrorism – International Law has started to provide new rules for new challenges. Small states stand to be primary beneficiaries of the further evolution of International Law because it largely negates the influence of power in the settlement of disputes. In 2008, the ICJ ruled in a territorial dispute between the small state Singapore and its middle power neighbor Malaysia. The ruling was largely in favor of Singapore

in Small states in world politics
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Allwood 06 24/2/10 10:31 Page 171 Conclusion Women asylum seekers and refugees make up a third of the refugee migrant population in Britain and over half the population group in France. Nevertheless they remain largely invisible within both refugee communities and the female migrant population. One of the main aims of this book has been to place their story at the centre of accounts of refugee migration and migrants in Britain and France in order to increase our knowledge and understanding of their place and role in these two countries and to highlight their

in Refugee women in Britain and France

This book is about the lives of refugee women in Britain and France. Who are they? Where do they come from? What happens to them when they arrive, while they wait for a decision on their claim for asylum, and after the decision, whether positive or negative? The book shows how laws and processes designed to meet the needs of men fleeing political persecution often fail to protect women from persecution in their home countries and fail to meet their needs during and after the decision-making process. It portrays refugee women as resilient, resourceful and potentially active participants in British and French social, political and cultural life. The book exposes the obstacles that make active participation difficult.