join the democratic camp in 1991.
Differentiation according to rank can be complemented by differentiation according to role. So, for example, what are the commonalities of
mindset shared by such siloviki as Viktor Kazantsev, Andrei Chernenko,
and Vladimir Putin?
Kazantsev was appointed presidential representative in the Southern
federal district in 2000, having within the previous year commanded
the Russian forces in the field during the second Chechen war.
Colonel-General Andrei Chernenko was appointed the head of the
Federal Migration Service under the
European pattern of internal revolutions, ‘doctrinal-isms, ranging from
legitimism and absolutism to socialism and communism, via nationalism,
ultramontanism and liberalism’, brought major disasters such as two world
wars, Fascism, the Holocaust, Stalinism.62
The new worlds: represented primarily, but not exclusively, by the Americas,
South as well as North. In this group, while modernity was ‘created by early
modern conquest and mass migration, the theoretical and practical struggle
for modernity was largely external, against colonial Europe and by
becomes a source of pride rather than a stigma because
Peña notes: ‘The
much of the population was mestizo’.7 Gómez-
millions of indios, the original proto-Mexicans, were portrayed as
living in a parallel (and mythical) time and space outside our history
and society’ (Ethno-Techno p. 7). Banks argues this was an effective
strategy in consolidating Mexico’s identity: ‘Mexico’s policy of ennobling its indigenous population while simultaneously encouraging
European migration is not inconsistent with the creation of a single
national identity.’8 Across the US
, Geneva Convention III.
190 Article 51, Geneva Convention IV.
191 Article 5(1)(e), AP II.
192 Article 4(2)(f), AP II.
193 Article 1, 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices similar to Slavery.
194 R. Coomaraswamy, Special Rapporteur, ‘Report on trafficking in women, women’s migration and violence against women in accordance with Commission on Human Rights Resolution 1997/44’, Commission on Human Rights, UN Doc. E/CN.4/2000/68, 29 February 2000, paras 18–19, and S. Toepfer and B. Wells, ‘The
in 1947 was
eventually undermined by its very success. During the years 1958 to
1963, the Italian economy grew at an annual average of 6 per cent, and
investment and industrial production more than doubled. Several problems ensued. Territorially the rewards were uneven. The industrial
north flourished but, even with an injection of resources, the still predominantly rural south could generate nowhere near the same level of
average incomes. High growth, emigration to other EEC states, and
migration from the south to the north created nearly full employment, but, as
active everywhere. And everything is so discernible. As Nulifer Gole put it: “instead of asking for assimilation and equality the Islamists claim differences, much as U.S. Afro-Americans have done … ‘Islam is beautiful like black is beautiful’.” 16 But this might also be misleading, or could be differently interpreted. Most of these believers are migrants from the traditionally religious villages. The construction of transportation and communication networks has eased this migration, which was part of the mighty wave of industrialization and urbanization that has
formally inaugurated the raft of measures known as the White Australia policy. This policy, which remained in force until 1967, expressed a key social and political aspiration – an egalitarianism of white male workers from which Aboriginal people were by definition erased. The exclusion of Indigenous people from full legal citizenship and census-taking until overturned by referendum in 1967, after the great influxes of post-war migration, gives some indication of the political realities of this silence and the extent of Aboriginal powerlessness within the Australian
seemed to disintegrate into arguments about minority rights, the collapse of
state structures, the mass and usually forced migration of populations and
even worse forms of violence, such as the recent ethnic cleansing seen in the
Williams Chapter 8
23/10/98, 11:35 am
former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. Is there a necessary opposition between the
‘rights’ of the sovereign state and those of the individual?17 How can you
enable peoples to have their independence and dignity, while not denying
that to others within the borders occupied
finance for Soviet arms deliveries (Sela 1998: 145). Not just the shared threat but also a shared resource, the new oil wealth from the price boom unleashed by the oil embargo generated interdependence between the Arab states. The expectation that the new wealth would be shared with the states that had fought and sacrificed for the common Arab cause was partly realised by significant transfers of wealth to the latter, the migration of excess labour to the oil producers and the transfer of remittances home. The ‘Arab Cold War’ was decisively buried as the conservative