Allusion, anti-pastoral, and four centuries of pastoral invitations
appearance, allude back to the
earlier work themselves. Thus a reader of Walton might only subsequently come to read
the Marlowe–Raleigh poems as well as the classical poems from which they derive. The
temporal phenomenology of allusion is complex and sometimes counter-intuitive.
39 Such dense and manifold intertextual echoing, seemingly beyond any conscious authorial control, comes close to the different kind of intertextuality described by Mikhael
Bakhtin and Julia Kristeva, referring to the interwoven cultural and linguistic fields
out of which texts are woven. See
disorientation is highly instrumental to my study. In her work on queer phenomenology, Ahmed contends with the well-established but contentious notion of sexual orientation, which, she argues, constructs heterosexuality as the neutral sexual state and homosexuality as being a particular ‘deviant’ orientation. She suggests that the notion of sexual orientation is born at the same time as the figure of the homosexual, and hence homosexuals are the only subjects considered to have an orientation as such. However, instead of flatly rejecting the concept, she interrogates it and
, or expanded by its encounter
with a version of Africa in the twentieth century, for example; or
Africa is mimicking, catching up to, or in some way contaminating
some mythically pure white European West. Instead, as Susan
Buck-Morss notes of Hegel’s intimate intellectual engagement
with the history of the Haitian revolution at the time of his
writing on phenomenology, the
-reading insufficiently binding – why attention wanders or information seeps away. Authors and critics have often commented on the difficulty of absorbing the written word. In 1921 the literary theorist Percy Lubbock described reading as a ‘perpetually defeated’ attempt to ‘grasp the shadowy and fantasmal form of a book’ (Lubbock 1957 : 1); similar observations have subsequently been made by critics who have been influenced by phenomenology. In response to the challenge of making books real, and of keeping them in one’s head as one reads, many of us resort to practices such as keeping
purpose for dominant culture to convince itself that not all sexuality
– including normative heterosexuality – is reliant on a kind of narcissism or ego-erotics. He argues that the self-evident fact that gay people
are obviously interested in those who are different from them – that
their interest is in more than ‘relations of mere sameness’ (ibid.: 191)
– throws into relief the ideological function of defining gay people as
oriented towards the same. Sara Ahmed (2006: 96), in her book Queer
Phenomenology (2006), argues that the ‘association between
Two distinct portraits of a ‘fairy queen’ imply contrary views of human nature and contrary aesthetics. In Spenser’s epic a mystic Gloriana draws noble heroes to realise the twelve virtues, perfecting the soul in Godlikeness. In Shakespeare’s comic stage-play a sensually potent Titania evokes a different fairy realm. Directly experienced, her bodily splendor and witty combative speeches arouse desire not just in the privileged but in rude commoners, who commandeer the play’s most engaging scenes. Instead of vying with Spenser’s elite quests for morality in an intellectual heaven-based allegory, Shakespeare views morality in all social classes, the humbler earthy sort matching the more pretentious. Both are ego-driven yet communally civil. This ironic engagement with Spenser’s ‘supreme fiction’ wondrously expands Shakespeare’s own artistry. Equally polarized are the poets’ views of self-love as a touchstone of human psychology. Like Calvin and Luther, Spenser discredits self-love as shameful, both in monarchs like Lucifera and in louts like Braggadocchio, causing Redcrosse’s wretched fall and Guyon’s helpless faint. In contrast, Shakespeare’s characters, noble and vulgar, show a positive form of self-love if carefully managed, as observed by Aristotle, Aquinas, and Primaudaye.
Hill Blanchot Reader, p. 392.
36 Derrida, Aporias, p. 22.
37 Maurice Blanchot, The Writing of the Disaster, trans. Ann Smock (Lincoln:
Nebraska University Press, 1995), p. 70.
38 Blanchot, The Space of Literature, p. 103.
39 Blanchot, The Station Hill Blanchot Reader, p. 378.
40 Blanchot, The Station Hill Blanchot Reader, pp. 380, 379.
41 G.W.F. Hegel, Phenomenology of Spirit, trans. A.V. Miller (Oxford:
Clarendon, 1979), p. 66.
42 Blanchot, The Station Hill Blanchot Reader, p. 380.
43 Blanchot, The Space of Literature, p. 255.
44 Blanchot, The
abjuration, some very beautiful and splendid
era whose existence rehabilitates us both in regards to ourselves and
in regards to others’.30 Clearly, Fanon reinscribes decolonization within
a Sartrean existential phenomenology, apprehending the colonized’s
beings-for-others beyond an abject and nauseating colonialism. However,
he warns that the essentialism of Negro and Arab intellectuals in their
attempt to rehabitate their past obfuscates the historical specificities
of culture as national, and that the racialization of culture (qua negritude)
and the confusion of culture
Figures of comparison and repetition in Spenser’s Cantos of
Mutabilitie and Donne’s Anniversaries
Milgate (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978), xxxiv.
94 Anniversaries , 239.
95 Lewalski, Donne’s ‘Anniversaries’ and the Poetry of Praise , 50.
96 Anniversaries , 240. See Edward W. Tayler, Donne’s Idea of a Woman: Structure and Meaning in ‘The Anniversaries’ (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991).
97 On allegory in the Anniversaries , see Lewalski, Donne’s ‘Anniversaries’ and the Poetry of Praise , 142–7; also Anniversaries , 293–317.
98 G.W.F. Hegel, The Phenomenology of Spirit , trans. A.V. Miller (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979
hundreds of pairs ended
up on the left half of the body mould, and the other on the right.
Both sides of the bread body were then flipped over. The result
was that the co-ordinates of left and right failed to signify in the
way that we are accustomed to think that they do. They could not
be seen as opposites; nor could they give an observer back their
comfortable bearings. The ‘universal’ of perceiving left from right
was confounded because Gormley made an enantiomorph. Because
the sculpture disrupted the phenomenology of left/right apprehension, intuitions about how we