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Thomas O’Connor

back into the warp and weft of the international migrant experience, producing a more adequate account of their origins, roles and functions in Irish migrant activities across Europe.20 Accordingly, the various Irish college communities were not merely exile havens and instruments of Spanish strategy but also migrant institutions, components of the broadly spread Irish Catholic world that, long before the mass migration of the nineteenth century, stretched far beyond the physical boundaries of the kingdom. This sharper migrant focus invites a second look at how the

in College communities abroad
Chris Armstrong

and power, and as a conduit for egalitarian politics. Although the political project of citizenship has been successfully ‘fixed’ at the level of the nation-state in recent centuries (Behnke 1997), this link is under threat on a number of fronts. The growth of transnational identities and mass migration, the vagaries of the global economy, or the collapse of the vision of the homogenous nation-state have led to a progressive unwrapping of the citizenship ‘package’ that characterised much of the twentieth century, based on state sovereignty, social protection and a

in Rethinking Equality
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Andrew S. Thompson

nineteenth century as a period in which the world witnessed the interaction of many diasporas, which in turn produced new modes of communication and new ‘global political imaginations’. He charts the rooting of diasporic cultures in their localities over time, conveying how, in the early stages of mass migration, diasporas were in flux, but later developed firmer contours, as ‘sojourning’ was replaced by

in Writing imperial histories
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The Scottish military tradition in decline
Stuart Allan

and riots during a police strike, 1st RSF was deployed briefly on internal security operations in support of the civil authorities. The following year, in the midst of the mass migrations and communal violence which accompanied the approach of partition, 1st RSF helped to run refugee camps and formed the escort for two convoys of open-topped buses despatched hundreds of miles from Delhi to

in Scotland, empire and decolonisation in the twentieth century
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Mark Hampton

continuing exodus from Hong Kong, allowing Hong Kong’s Chinese to remain in the city they called home, but some critics of the UK Government’s policy argued that a mass migration to the UK, even if it did occur, would actually redound to the latter’s benefit. At the time the Draft Agreement of the Joint Declaration was presented, in September 1984, Liberal MP Russell Johnston suggested that immigration from

in Hong Kong and British culture, 1945–97
Distance, perspective and an ‘inclusive nationhood’
Mary Chamberlain

attainable goal, and engaging in politics a feasible ambition. It was no coincidence that after the mass migrations of the early twentieth century there was a marked increase in levels of political activity, both formal and informal. 19 Bonham Richardson has pointed out that the reverberations of the Panama migration in Barbados amounted to a social revolution, 20 a sentiment echoed by Winston James

in Empire and nation-building in the Caribbean
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Lindsay J. Proudfoot and Dianne P. Hall

–36. 24 Surveyed in L. Harte and Y. Whelan (eds), Ireland Beyond Boundaries. Mapping Irish Studies in the Twenty-first Century (London, 2007), passim . 25 J. Belchem, ‘The Irish Diaspora: The Complexities of Mass Migration’, Przeglad Polonijny , Vol. 31, No. 1 (2005), pp. 87–98; K. Kenny

in Imperial spaces
Lindsay J. Proudfoot and Dianne P. Hall

and Ireland and elsewhere. 86 This shift coincided with the advent of mass migration to Australia, which in turn meant that there was only a short tradition of church graveyards there. By the second half of the century, the vast majority of cemeteries in Australia were public sites and administered by secular committees rather than by Churches. Cemeteries were divided into separate sections for each denomination, and

in Imperial spaces
Dimitris Dalakoglou

-Sievers 2002, 941), remittances represent one-fifth of Albanian GDP. According to the Bank of Albania MUP_Dalakoglou_Printer.indd 142 17/01/2017 15:46 Domesticating the road 143 (2004), remittances in the early 1990s were more than 20 percent of the country’s GDP, and were never lower than 10 percent of GDP (de Zwager et al. 2005). As the vast majority of Albanian migrants do not remit via the official banking system, these estimates are almost certainly well below the actual amounts. In the 1990s, following the mass migration from Albania, for many migrants their first

in The road
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T. M. Devine

coming of the great industrial depression of 1848, the southern labour market became decidedly more difficult for some time. All these forces were pushing Highland society inexorably towards social catastrophe and some observers asserted that a tragedy on the scale of Ireland was inevitable unless emergency measures were taken swiftly. The most telling illustration of the intense pressures unleashed on the population by the failure of the potatoes was the increase in mass migration as certain districts experienced enormous demographic losses during these terrible years

in Clanship to crofters’ war