martyrs had previously been authorised, and in
December 1886 those fifty-four were beatified by ‘equipollent’ decree. In 1895, nine
more martyrs were added. During the twentiethcentury, 221 more were beatified
and 45 canonised. This study explores the beginnings of this process, examining the
martyrs’ role in Catholic–Protestant encounters in late Victorian England, as well as
their place in the development of Catholic identity.
The martyrs and the development of ‘modern’ English
If nineteenth-century Catholic scholarship was rooted in early
impact which earlier Protestant histories, and
particularly that of Foxe, had upon Froude’s interpretation. Again,
the fundamentals of the narrative would meet with considerable
agreement among modern Reformation scholars, but the ‘tone’ of
the passage would be entirely foreign to historians of the later
Elizabeth had borne her share of the persecution; she resented with
the whole force of her soul the indignities to which she had been
exposed, and she sympathized with those who had suffered at her
side. She was the idol of the young, the restless
be Irish was to be Catholic, and this was even more true for people living abroad
than at home.
Today, this Catholic identity is largely (and understandably) repudiated, not
least because of the horrendous abuse of children, revealed initially by the media
and then, with added authority, by the various reports of the government commissions set up to investigate the scandals. Traditional Irish Catholicism, for all its
Tracing change and setting the context
former achievements, which were considerable, had, by the middle of the twentiethcentury
The fraught relationship between women and the Catholic Church in Ireland
that it was a nineteenth century society up to about 1970 and then it almost bypassed the twentiethcentury’
(The Guardian, 6 January 2002). That ‘peculiarity’ is most evident when it comes
to the rapid nature of change in family life. Ireland has changed from a largely
homogenous society, loyal to the tenets of Catholicism, to a multicultural society
with access to contraception and divorce, in a remarkably short space of time.
Indeed, the role of women at the heart of that change, given the strong relationship between women and
church councils, sixteenth to twentiethcenturies’, Witchcraft
in the Netherlands from the Fourteenth to the TwentiethCentury ,
eds. Marijke Gijswijt-Hofstra and Willem Frijhoff, trans. Rachel M.J.
van der Wilden-Fall (Rotterdam: Rotterdam University Press, 1991
), 103–111: 110–111; Monter, Witchcraft in France
and Switzerland ,119,table 7; Antero Heikkinen and Timo Kervinen,
‘Finland: The male
information as to how the
community formation process has taken place since the beginning of the
arrival of Bengali seamen in the early twentiethcentury. The chapter
maps the process of how the community responded to the challenges
it faced in previous decades. The data presented in this chapter reveals
that the community has remained on the margin of the society both
economically and spatially. A significant proportion of the community,
54 per cent of the total British-Bangladeshi population, lives in the
Greater London area and 23 per cent of the population live in a
Maitland of Lethington, and John
Leslie. Crafted by William Birnie Rhind in 1896, these carvings were commissioned by a committee of bourgeois Catholic Edinburgh women. Both the fundraising campaign and the statues were viewed as significant accomplishments
for Scotland’s Catholic women and for British Catholics in general, and yet
the work that women did for the church behind the scenes and the public role
that many were beginning to assume as the twentiethcentury dawned did not
Creating a Scottish Church
translate into equality.49 When Archbishop Eyre addressed
Rigid binaries and masculinistic logic
More than one subject:
Irigaray and psychoanalytic theory
As original as Irigaray’s work is, it is nonetheless situated firmly in the
French philosophy of the twentiethcentury. Some of the dominant
themes of that philosophy were drawn from Hegel, either in agreement or
disagreement with him (Descombes 1980: 12): themes such as the nature
of the subject, identity and difference, and the role of desire (Butler 1999;
Gutting 2001). As we will see in the course of this book, Irigaray takes up
these themes, but in
actions.’ 21 Freedman wrote that ‘most of the immigrants were very poor and, of those who came to Leeds, few were intellectuals – in any sense’. 22 It was these generations that Leeds Jewry sought to steer towards integration.
Samuel Goodman left Leeds in the early years of the twentiethcentury. In an attempt to ‘make it’ in America, he rapidly left behind many of the outward appearances or habits of what was obviously Jewish in the city. Yet his children, and their children, were in many ways
48 Potts, Wonderfull Discoverie , H3.
49 Potts, Wonderfull Discoverie , O2.
50 Calendar of State Papers Domestic , 1634–35, pp. 141, 152–3.
51 Trevor-Roper, European Witch-Craze , p. 9.
52 For another perspective on this work, see Diane Purkiss, The Witch in History: Early Modern and Twentieth-Century Representations (London: Routledge, 1996), pp. 235–47.
53 Thomas Dunham Whitaker, History of the Original Parish of Whalley (1801; 3rd edn, London