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Lucy Underwood

martyrs had previously been authorised, and in December 1886 those fifty-­four were beatified by ‘equipollent’ decree. In 1895, nine more martyrs were added. During the twentieth century, 221 more were beatified and 45 canonised. This study explores the beginnings of this process, examining the martyrs’ role in Catholic–Protestant encounters in late Victorian England, as well as their place in the development of Catholic identity. The martyrs and the development of ‘modern’ English Catholic historiography If nineteenth-­century Catholic scholarship was rooted in early

in Making and remaking saints in nineteenth-century Britain
The Reformation heritage
Rosemary O’Day

impact which earlier Protestant histories, and particularly that of Foxe, had upon Froude’s interpretation. Again, the fundamentals of the narrative would meet with considerable agreement among modern Reformation scholars, but the ‘tone’ of the passage would be entirely foreign to historians of the later twentieth century: Elizabeth had borne her share of the persecution; she resented with the whole force of her soul the indignities to which she had been exposed, and she sympathized with those who had suffered at her side. She was the idol of the young, the restless

in The Debate on the English Reformation
A time of hope!
Vincent Twomey

personal. To be Irish was to be Catholic, and this was even more true for people living abroad than at home. Today, this Catholic identity is largely (and understandably) repudiated, not least because of the horrendous abuse of children, revealed initially by the media and then, with added authority, by the various reports of the government commissions set up to investigate the scandals. Traditional Irish Catholicism, for all its   90 90 Tracing change and setting the context former achievements, which were considerable, had, by the middle of the twentieth century

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
The fraught relationship between women and the Catholic Church in Ireland
Sharon Tighe-Mooney

that it was a nineteenth century society up to about 1970 and then it almost bypassed the twentieth century’ (The Guardian, 6 January 2002). That ‘peculiarity’ is most evident when it comes to the rapid nature of change in family life. Ireland has changed from a largely   193 Irreconcilable differences? homogenous society, loyal to the tenets of Catholicism, to a multicultural society with access to contraception and divorce, in a remarkably short space of time. Indeed, the role of women at the heart of that change, given the strong relationship between women and

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

church councils, sixteenth to twentieth centuries’, Witchcraft in the Netherlands from the Fourteenth to the Twentieth Century , eds. Marijke Gijswijt-Hofstra and Willem Frijhoff, trans. Rachel M.J. van der Wilden-Fall (Rotterdam: Rotterdam University Press, 1991 [1987]), 103–111: 110–111; Monter, Witchcraft in France and Switzerland ,119,table 7; Antero Heikkinen and Timo Kervinen, ‘Finland: The male

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Abstract only
Ali Riaz

information as to how the community formation process has taken place since the beginning of the arrival of Bengali seamen in the early twentieth century. The chapter maps the process of how the community responded to the challenges it faced in previous decades. The data presented in this chapter reveals that the community has remained on the margin of the society both economically and spatially. A significant proportion of the community, 54 per cent of the total British-Bangladeshi population, lives in the Greater London area and 23 per cent of the population live in a

in Islam and identity politics among British-Bangladeshis
Devotion, association and community
S. Karly Kehoe

Maitland of Lethington, and John Leslie. Crafted by William Birnie Rhind in 1896, these carvings were commissioned by a committee of bourgeois Catholic Edinburgh women. Both the fundraising campaign and the statues were viewed as significant accomplishments for Scotland’s Catholic women and for British Catholics in general, and yet the work that women did for the church behind the scenes and the public role that many were beginning to assume as the twentieth century dawned did not 166 Creating a Scottish Church translate into equality.49 When Archbishop Eyre addressed

in Creating a Scottish Church
Irigaray and psychoanalytic theory
Hanneke Canters and Grace M. Jantzen

CHAPTER 2 Rigid binaries and masculinistic logic More than one subject: Irigaray and psychoanalytic theory As original as Irigaray’s work is, it is nonetheless situated firmly in the French philosophy of the twentieth century. Some of the dominant themes of that philosophy were drawn from Hegel, either in agreement or disagreement with him (Descombes 1980: 12): themes such as the nature of the subject, identity and difference, and the role of desire (Butler 1999; Gutting 2001). As we will see in the course of this book, Irigaray takes up these themes, but in

in Forever fluid
Integration and separation
Aaron Kent

actions.’ 21 Freedman wrote that ‘most of the immigrants were very poor and, of those who came to Leeds, few were intellectuals – in any sense’. 22 It was these generations that Leeds Jewry sought to steer towards integration. Family experiences Samuel Goodman left Leeds in the early years of the twentieth century. In an attempt to ‘make it’ in America, he rapidly left behind many of the outward appearances or habits of what was obviously Jewish in the city. Yet his children, and their children, were in many ways

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
Abstract only
The Lancashire witches in historical context
James Sharpe

. 48 Potts, Wonderfull Discoverie , H3. 49 Potts, Wonderfull Discoverie , O2. 50 Calendar of State Papers Domestic , 1634–35, pp. 141, 152–3. 51 Trevor-Roper, European Witch-Craze , p. 9. 52 For another perspective on this work, see Diane Purkiss, The Witch in History: Early Modern and Twentieth-Century Representations (London: Routledge, 1996), pp. 235–47. 53 Thomas Dunham Whitaker, History of the Original Parish of Whalley (1801; 3rd edn, London

in The Lancashire witches