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Chen Kertcher

detrimental to the maintenance of peace. He also enumerated many additional threats, such as the increase in debt of developing nations, poverty, diseases, famine, oppression, Agenda for peacekeeping 1992–93 89 and the rise in the numbers of refugees, displaced persons and mass migrations of tens of millions of human beings. Boutros-Ghali felt that maintaining a world order comprising countries at peace with one another, and resolving intrastate hazards that threaten this order, would strengthen what he viewed as the positive elements of globalisation. Therefore he felt

in The United Nations and peacekeeping, 1988–95
Matthias Maass

As all states have become affected by challenges that reach far beyond the scope of single nation-states – from climate change to ­migration and terrorism – International Law has started to provide new rules for new challenges. Small states stand to be primary beneficiaries of the further evolution of International Law because it largely negates the influence of power in the settlement of disputes. In 2008, the ICJ ruled in a territorial dispute between the small state Singapore and its middle power neighbor Malaysia. The ruling was largely in favor of Singapore

in Small states in world politics
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Gill Allwood and Khursheed Wadia

Allwood 06 24/2/10 10:31 Page 171 Conclusion Women asylum seekers and refugees make up a third of the refugee migrant population in Britain and over half the population group in France. Nevertheless they remain largely invisible within both refugee communities and the female migrant population. One of the main aims of this book has been to place their story at the centre of accounts of refugee migration and migrants in Britain and France in order to increase our knowledge and understanding of their place and role in these two countries and to highlight their

in Refugee women in Britain and France

This book is about the lives of refugee women in Britain and France. Who are they? Where do they come from? What happens to them when they arrive, while they wait for a decision on their claim for asylum, and after the decision, whether positive or negative? The book shows how laws and processes designed to meet the needs of men fleeing political persecution often fail to protect women from persecution in their home countries and fail to meet their needs during and after the decision-making process. It portrays refugee women as resilient, resourceful and potentially active participants in British and French social, political and cultural life. The book exposes the obstacles that make active participation difficult.

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Identity politics and reticent Europeanisation
Dimitris Tsarouhas

Europeanisation 127 afford the elites of either the opportunity to draw a concluding line to this relationship. Instead, the politics of pragmatism and the need for mutual cooperation have resurfaced in recent times, not least due to the spill-over effects of the Syrian civil war and the huge migration and refugee crisis (European Commission, 2015d). The latter has placed a premium on EU– Turkey relations and both sides, however unwillingly, are conscious of their mutual dependence in such turbulent times. In line with one of the key themes of this book, this chapter

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood
International, European and national frameworks
Gill Allwood and Khursheed Wadia

ideological superiority of the West), to domestic concerns with migration control, to local racism and xenophobia, heightened by competition for scarce resources. Asylum and refugee policy is currently high on the political agenda in France and the UK, as it is at the EU level.1 This chapter has two aims. The first is to set out the international, European and national framework for refugee status determination, reception and settlement.What is striking is the rapid increase in measures introduced since the 1990s in Britain and France, many of which are intended to restrict

in Refugee women in Britain and France
Gill Allwood and Khursheed Wadia

reports.The Immigration Rights Project report on the successes and failures of Labour’s migration policy, for example, makes only one reference to women, stating that they have a low take-up of screening and health programmes (Somerville 2006). Limited research means that little is known about the lives of refugee women in the UK. As recently as 2002, Hildegaard Dumper, a freelance researcher responsible for a large proportion of the research on refugee women conducted for UK government and non-government agencies, wrote,‘One of the surprises of this research was the

in Refugee women in Britain and France
Abstract only
Gill Allwood and Khursheed Wadia

refugees, procedural difficulties involved in claiming asylum and refusal by the state, in both countries, to recognise certain types of gendered persecution or acknowledge the reality of danger and conflict in particular countries as a means of deterring unfounded and fraudulent claims. Moreover, recent moves towards ‘managed’ or ‘selective’ migration (immigration choisie) by the British and French governments place women asylum seekers in an even more disadvantaged position as managed migration favours skilled labour migrants while excluding family migrants and asylum

in Refugee women in Britain and France
Gill Allwood and Khursheed Wadia

Allwood 04 24/2/10 4 10:29 Page 96 Refugee women in France In France, as in other EU states, the spotlight on asylum issues and the country’s diverse refugee communities has increased over the past 15 years. This focus on refugee migration and asylum rights is due to several factors; for example, the expansion in numbers of those seeking asylum in France and the fact that many of them arrive from zones of conflict and disaster (Kosovo, Chechnya, Rwanda, DRC, Iraq and others) where traumatic events and acts of extreme violence impact severely on their basic

in Refugee women in Britain and France
Constance Duncombe

opportunist always looking towards the future. Common experiences of civil religion, migration and belief in the Promised Land, which are further articulated through mass engagement with popular culture, compose its identity. It is important to analyse US state identity because how a state represents itself is key to producing images of state Self and Other that act to reinforce or reimagine frameworks of identity. Projections of US identity inform the foreign policy direction of the state. Before we can understand the role that recognition plays in the process

in Representation, recognition and respect in world politics