‘cosmopolitan’ ethic in favour of
one that in fact privileged the ‘statist’ aims of the main Allied protagonists.
British liberalism and the outbreak of war
The ‘Liberal Mind’ that dominated British political thinking before 1914
was one that was open but also ‘halting, weak, vacillating, divided and
concessive’, as J.A. Hobson described it.6 When it was faced with a global, or
at least a major, European war, it was faced with a problem that it could not
really comprehend or deal with, for ‘war in advanced capitalist countries
would be unprofitable and therefore unthinkable
Construction of the African Union’s peace and security structures
Kasaija Phillip Apuuli
the routines and norms of everyday politics ( ibid .: 129). In the context of UK–Africa relations, the Labour and post-2010 Conservative-led Governments have increasingly presented African issues within a narrative of security, from climate change to migration and from HIV/AIDS to Ebola ( ibid .: 130). With regard to Ebola, for example, David Cameron observed that ‘the disease has the potential to become a serious global threat with … security consequences’ (Cameron, 2014 ). The increased prevalence of conflict on the African continent provided the empirical
important organisations within TJM were represented, and secondly that the entire period since TJM’s formation in 2000 was covered.
TJM was created at a time when a nascent global justice movement was just emerging. In the UK, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were starting to take advantage of the relaxation of charity law constraints that had been achieved in 1995, which enabled them to adopt more overtly political campaigns (Saunders, 2009 : 50). TJM is a coalition of NGOs (at the time of writing nearly seventy), 2 which sought to build
This study set out to look at three
shared features of nation-building in unified Germany and Vietnam, namely
national division, the impact of communism and the interplay with regional
integration. It found that the nation-building process in post-unification
Germany and Vietnam cannot be understood without a close reading of their
respective historical, political and cultural contexts. The following
and explore notions
of negative and positive peace in historical context before moving on to
discuss three key themes in this century’s peacemaking project: the root
causes of conflict, its complex and global nature and the requirements
of a universal-globalist response.
The normative challenge
It is possible to describe the pursuance of peace as a perpetual human
project: a ‘peace project’ that encompasses all human activity designed
to achieve peace in all of its forms, be it political, religious, civil or
academic. The one thing that links the diverse, multi- and
A comparative case study of Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda
Ivica Petrikova and Melita Lazell
was the most recent at the time of research. We break up this timeframe into three periods – 2002–5, 2006–10 and 2011–15 – in order to analyse whether any change occurred following the transition from Labour to Conservative-led Governments after 2010.
The data on aid flows come from the OECD Creditor Reporting System (CRS). Aid to democratisation activities is classified by CRS under the code 152: I.5.a and includes support for democratic participation and civil society, legal and judicial development, legislatures and political parties
his attention was drawn to the newly established European Economic
Community (EEC), which became the European Union on 1 November
1993 when the Maastricht Treaty, which had been concluded the
previous year, came into effect. In 1959, he became Chairperson of the
Irish Council of the European Movement, editing and writing its news
bulletin, and welcoming to Dublin the first President of the Commission, Dr Walter Hallstein.1
From 1965 onwards, he was increasingly to the fore in the country’s
political life, at first as a Fine Gael member of the Seanad, and then
decline and changing age-structure means fewer people in the
labour market and able to contribute to economic growth and – seen as
particularly important in terms of Russia’s security given the continuing
existence of military conscription and a trained reserve – fewer people to
staff the armed forces.
In terms of migration policy then, it might seem obvious that allowing
an increase in immigration might provide a relatively straightforward
solution to population decline. However, as is apparent throughout this
chapter, political pressures, often couched in securitising
to those that either correspond with A’s or are ‘comparatively innocuous to A’ ( p. 7 ). The final and most complex view Lukes speaks of critiques the behavioural focus of the first and second and hones in on the ability to control the political agenda (not necessarily via a formal decisions) and manage a population’s ‘perceptions, cognitions and preferences in such a way that they accept their role in the existing order of things’ ( Lukes, 2005 , p. 28).
By means of introduction each of these different views gives some idea of the variance that exists
settings under certain rules and regulations and mostly in an inferior position
due to their inability to formulate an intellectually critical and coherent
position – but these institutions are also surrounded by well-established myths
and rituals which are essential for the success of their social and political role.
Such myths, for example, include their imparting of objective knowledge,
meritocracy and their function as gateways for future success.
Intellectual captivation of the citizens is considered as the preferred method
of control. It is more