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thought as contrasted with error. Parmenides, as we saw in Chapter 1, was told by the goddess that her teaching was the way of truth, while the masses who were not initiated into logic and who followed the way of opinion were ‘two–headed’, in perplexity with ‘minds astray’ (Coxon 1986: 54). This idea of logic as crucially involved with truth and with the correct thinking which will result in truth has been repeated many times in the history of Western thought. One of the philosophers who influenced logical theory most forcefully in the twentieth century was Gottlob

in Forever fluid
James I’s Daemonologie and The Wonderfull Discoverie of Witches

right. Late-twentieth-century historians such as Carlo Ginsberg, Keith Thomas and Brian Levack have shown that trial records such as those accurately reproduced by Potts are the result of complex interactions between the elite culture of demonology and the popular one of instrumental maleficium . In his book The Night Battles , Ginsberg convincingly showed how popular non-diabolic beliefs could be transformed by elite inquisitors into stories of satanism that could even come to be accepted by the accused themselves. 18 There is no reason

in The Lancashire witches
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The ‘lost’ Lancashire witches

be prosecuted through the courts. This sometimes led to vigilante activities against suspected witches. 56 There are examples of cunning folk practising right up until the early twentieth century. Although they may not have been referred to explicitly as cunning people, they were offering similar types of advice and herbal remedies, though perhaps not so many magical charms. Folk medicine (as it was now thought of) really declined in the nineteenth century as a more rational scientific approach spread, as medical science improved, and as

in The Lancashire witches

Turkey. After 1945 successively a professor at Strasbourg and in Paris, for twenty years a member of the Communist Party and a life-long Marxist, Cahen established himself as the most influential western historian of the medieval Islamic Near East in the twentieth century. His work on the crusades, although an adjunct to his chief concerns, was revelatory by placing them in a context that eluded almost all others. Cahen’s contempt for Grousset’s Histoire was profound, regarding it as a work devoid of specialist insight by a popularising author ignorant of ‘any of the

in The Debate on the Crusades
Manchester Quakers and refugees, 1933–1937

consequences of discrimination were part of the Quaker heritage: since their beginnings in seventeenth-century England, Friends had suffered both collective persecution as dissenters and personal oppression as pacifists. Soon after 1933 it became clear that Quakers in Nazi Germany were again at risk on both counts. A feature of ‘the Quaker Way’ was the immediacy of the link between egalitarian belief and philanthropic action, of which conscientious objection to military service was only the most obvious public expression. In the early twentieth century British Quakers were

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
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Frederick Lucas and social Catholicism in Ireland

returned to England. It abandoned his Irish nationalist sympathies, and in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was conservative in politics and suspicious of Irish enthusiasms. In significant respects, Lucas anticipated the course of English Catholicism in the later nineteenth century, when under Cardinal Henry Edward Manning old-style aristocratic leadership gave way to clerical dominance. The standard life of Lucas, published by his brother Edward (also a convert) in 1886, presents Lucas as vindicated by Gladstone’s land legislation, conceded to land

in Irish Catholic identities
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Catholic imagination, modern Irish writing and the case of John McGahern

, of Martin McDonagh’s enormously successful ‘Leenane Trilogy’ of the late 1990s makes for a nice bit of local colour, and the predatory paedophile, Fr Tiddly, of Patrick McCabe’s The Butcher Boy (1992) gives us some of the best belly laughs in the book. In these sorts of depictions there is, of course, the danger of falling into what Gus Martin once dubbed ‘the clerical cliché’, having the priesthood and the broader Catholic Church become as unrealistically monstrous as it once was overly sunny in something like the hugely popular early twentieth-century fiction of

in Irish Catholic identities

history of the later twentieth century, which was thought to be more ‘relevant’ and attractive to students. In 2010 the government withdrew funding subsidy for teaching for Arts and Humanities subjects, including history. History departments were expected to fund their teaching from student fees. During the 1990s governments also changed the basis on which research funding was distributed. Various research assessment exercises were carried out to monitor the productivity and worth of departments, using peer review as the main tool. The academy responded with compliance

in The Debate on the English Reformation

historians have drawn attention to the expansion in the market for historical fiction from the 1880s onwards and the predilection for particular periods and versions of the nation’s past at set points in time.3 The Fifth Queen Trilogy by Ford Madox Ford (1873–1939) was a notable literary addition in the early twentieth century; which, despite its archaic and unbelievable dialogue, remains readable today.4 Billie Melman has noted how contemporaries of all classes throughout the nineteenth century made these histories their own, as ‘active consumers’ transforming them

in The Debate on the English Reformation
Education, migration and Catholicism in early modern Europe

emphasis on the significance of their colleges for the maintenance of Catholicism in hostile territory through the provision of an educated clergy for missionary work.104 Mid- and even later twentieth-century college histories were marked frequently by the confessional and institutional approaches sketched out by the pioneering insiders, but subsequent historians brought more professional ­historical standards to bear on their subject matter. The history of the Scots colleges is especially well covered, through the work of Maurice Taylor on the Scots in Spain (written

in College communities abroad