Klaus Brummer, Sebastian Harnisch, Kai Oppermann and Diana Panke
change, migration, public health, or internet governance, that cut across policy domains and are still predominantly but not exclusively addressed by state foreign policy. Moreover, a growing number of traditional foreign policy concerns (and the quality thereof) have unintended consequences in adjacent policy areas (interdependence effects), requiring cross-realm solutions. For example, in the realm of internet governance the emergence of high-powered transnational search engine providers, such as Google, have raised a host of privacy concerns, most notably in Europe
American Political Science Review 93(2), 327–344.
Feely, T. Jens (2002) The Multiple Goals of Science and Technology Policy, in Frank R. Baumgartner and Bryan D. Jones (eds.) Policy Dynamics , Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 125–154.
Green-Pedersen, Christoffer and Sebastiaan Princen (2016) Punctuated Equilibrium Theory, in Nikolaos Zahariadis (ed.) Handbook of Public Policy Agenda Setting , Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 69–86.
Guiraudon, Virginie (2000) European Integration and Migration Policy: Vertical Policy-Making as Venue Shopping, Journal of
Alons, Gerry C. (2007) Predicting a State’s Foreign Policy: State Preferences between Domestic and International Constraints, Foreign Policy Analysis 3(3), 211–232.
Alscher, Stefan, Johannes Obergfell and Stefanie Ricarda Roos (2015) Migrationsprofil Westbalkan: Ursachen, Herausforderungen und Lösungsansätze , Working Paper 63, Nürnberg: Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge.
Basinger, Scott J. and Hallerberg, Mark (2004) Remodeling the Competition for Capital: How Domestic Politics Erases the Race to the Bottom
and police co-operation
progress in areas transferred to the First Pillar, such as drugs policy and migration matters).128 Across the board, progress in police and customs co-operation,
prevention of organised crime and wider judicial co-operation in criminal matters was considered as ‘insufficient’, with over a quarter of the previously agreed
initiatives delayed. Breaking the headline figures down further, there was an even
split for both asylum, migration and border matters and the wider creation of a
European asylum system, with half the initiatives achieved
traditions of relatively centralized state structures’ (Herbst
2000: 11). These have been the result of migration flows and the influence of
the centralising exercises of political rule in the Kongo, Luba-Lunda and the
Kunda kingdoms (Muiu and Martin 2009: 104). Wa Muiu and Martin argue
that the Kongo kingdom had developed a highly centralised structure around a
single currency, a centralised army and the king (Muiu and Martin 2009:
104–5). However, this power was articulated on a mutual assurance of authority between the king and local elites. Protection and tribute
(Autesserre 2010; Lemarchand
2003; Reyntjens 2009). Séverine Autesserre (2010) is a primary representative
arguing that violence in the Kivus is the consequence of issues of migration,
claims of citizenship and belonging and land disputes since the 1930s. The
problem with the peacebuilding strategies is that they have been aimed only at
national and regional levels, ignoring the local dimensions.
Autesserre rightly warns against the depoliticisation of villagers, chiefs and
local administrators and seeing them as simple followers manipulated by national
or regional elites
, as described in Chapter
11 Banyamulengue literally means people from Mulengue, in Swahili. Traditionally, this
term has been given in South Kivu to people associated with the wave of migrations from
Rwanda and Burundi in the early twentieth century, who settled in the high plateaux of
the Minembwe massif in between the territories of Kalehe, Mwenga and Fizi, and who
tend to be of a Tutsi background.
12 As seen in Chapter 3 this included the transferring of Belgian and white-owned land to
selected Rwandan/Tutsi who were made Congolese nationals after the
British regional power. 74 It enabled the Shah to state that ‘in 25 years Iran will be one of the world's five flourishing and prosperous nations … I think that in 10 years’ time our country will be as you [Britain] are now’. 75
One of his more well-known actions was the replacement of the traditional Islamic calendar, based on the migration of the Prophet Mohammad from Mecca to Medina, to a fictitious calendar centred on the coronation of Cyrus the Great. 76 Shifting from a religious calendar to one that celebrated the reign of
A visual narrative of the Romanian transition to capitalism
Anca Mihaela Pusca
ago by the commies. Add to all this the massive migration of the
population to every corner of Europe in search of a better life, add
the mobile phones and internet coffee shops and you get a new
species that will change the face of this land forever.
The face of this land has already been changed, as we will see
in the photographs taken by the group. And along with these
changes, that may seem natural and to be expected by many,
what has also changed is an entire imagination, an entire
way in which a society or group of people thought of themselves, or to
up to the end of 2007.
For details, see Conclusions of the Copenhagen European Council (Brussels, 1993).
See The Hague Programme: Strengthening Freedom, Security and Justice in the European Union
(Brussels, November 2004).
See, for example, Malcolm Anderson, ‘Border Regimes and Security in an Enlarged European
Community: Implications of the entry into force of the Amsterdam Treaty’, EUI Working
Paper No. 8 (2000); Eberhard Bort, ‘Illegal Migration and Cross-Border Crime: Challenges
at the Eastern Frontier of the European Union’, EUI Working Paper No. 9 (2000