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Insurgents’ use of terrorism at the initial stages of conflict
Susanne Martin and Leonard Weinberg

-scale armed fighting, or insurgency in the sense often associated with the term. We begin by identifying and offering a discussion of the terrorist campaigns that represented a “dead end.” Terrorism as a “dead end” Terrorism is not always an indicator of wider-scale warfare to come. We explore two categories of cases in which terrorism does not lead to insurgency. The first category includes those cases in which terrorists are just T E R R O R I S M A S A L E A D I N G ­I N D I C A T O R 101 terrorists. They are not seeking the type of political change or the level

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
Sean W. Burges

subtler morphing of the structures of regional and global politics and economics to create more space for their country to pursue its interests. Often this ocurred in symphony with the foreign policy agendas of established major international actors, although there were inevitable divergences. Part of the reason why this theme has been overlooked is the nature of scholarship and coverage of Brazil. A common theme to the more popularized English-language books published on contemporary Brazil is an attempt to provide insight into how this enormously complex country

in Brazil in the world
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

-based and dictatorially mass-mobilizing kind. From the ruins of Tsarist Russia emerged a communist empire; from the wreck of Germany emerged a new Reich based on racist doctrines of National Socialism. Both empires rose to Great-Power status. Both were anti-liberal powers who perceived international relations in terms of struggle. Their ambitions and rivalries deeply affected the international scene. 1 The stock-market crash in October 1929 was a turning point. It triggered a steep economic downturn which initiated a decade of economic crisis, political

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
Systems and structures in an age of upheaval
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

was replaced by the young, charismatic John F. Kennedy. His presidency symbolized the advent of a new generation with new political ideals. The USA was deeply shaken when Kennedy was assassinated in Texas in October 1963 and replaced by the Texan Senator Lyndon B. Johnson (1963–69). In the USSR, the Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev was toppled in a palace coup in 1964 and replaced by Leonid Brezhnev. One of the most significant issues that marked international relations during these years was that of decolonization. Nations in Asia and Africa demanded self

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
Sean W. Burges

a largely symbolic victory for Bolivia’s political leadership (Mesa, 2011 ). The longer-term pay-off for Brazil was keeping Bolivia onboard its South American initiatives and retaining close access to decision makers in La Paz. In the Ecuadorian case of threats to not repay BNDES loans, the benefits of this measured approach was particularly apparent as the Correa government moved during the Dilma administration to autonomously advance some of the economic coordination and integrationist initiatives necessary for a reshaping of elements of the hemispheric

in Brazil in the world
A view from below
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

2 Patterns and practices of everyday resistance: a view from below T What is everyday resistance? he informalities, ambiguities and contradictions that peacebuilding runs into reflect the political nature of the process. These become visible when examined from the everyday practices of the actors involved. In IR the everyday has become synonymous with the makings of actual subjects in their most quotidian roles (Autesserre 2014; Hobson and Seabrooke 2007; Mitchell 2011b; Neumann 2002). This is not so much a new field of study, as it represents a common call

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Obama, Trump and the Asia Pacific political economy
Michael Mastanduno

international order informed by US values and interests. 3 The Trump administration is the first in the post-war era to question explicitly the desirability of America’s hegemonic aspiration and the durability of its hegemonic role. Its “America First” rhetoric and objectives signal a preference to depart from order maintenance in favour of the more transactional politics of the balance of power. Its National Security Strategy (NSS) of 2017 explicitly casts China and Russia as competitors, rather than as potential partners in the US hegemonic project. Strategic

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific
Rodney Tiffen

eventually the asylum seekers were transferred to the tiny Pacific Island nation of Nauru. This was the first of several government actions to dramatize the problem of what they called illegal immigrants, and to successfully neutralize what had become a running political sore for it. Two weeks later the terrible events of September 11 made security concerns far more urgent than they had been at least since the end of

in Intelligence and national security policymaking on Iraq
Jeremy Pressman

dominant idea? A number of factors lock in an idea about how to best use policy instruments, while other elements can lead to change, where one idea about how to consider military force and negotiations is replaced by a different belief. The first section of the chapter emphasizes three factors that reinforce a commitment to military force as the dominant means: the realist structure of global politics; the multi-actor, non-unitary nature of global politics; and the impact that fear has in reinforcing the idea that force and sometimes violence are the best approach for

in The sword is not enough
Lesley Pruitt and Erica Rose Jeffrey

Keeping this in mind, it is significant here that the key participants in this research project are youth, since, although it has only just begun to be well recognised, ‘Young people are key stakeholders in peace and security efforts’. 2 The early part of the twenty-first century has seen an increased focus on youth in global political discourse, including that of key international aid and development programmes, such as those hosted by the UN and the World Bank, among others. 3

in Dancing through the dissonance