, intermediate and technical schooling.55 County education committees
50 See R. V. Comerford, ‘The British state and the education of Irish
Catholics, 1850–1921’, in Janusz Tomiak et al. (eds), Schooling,
Educational Policy and Ethnic Identity (New York: New York University
Press, 1991), pp. 13–33 and Séamas Ó Buachalla, Education Policy in
TwentiethCentury Ireland (Dublin: Wolfhound Press, 1988), pp. 209–11.
51 ICD 1920, p. 520.
52 DDA, Walsh papers, 386/6, Downing to Walsh, 8 December 1919.
53 Hansard, series 5 (Commons), cxxi, co. 1451 (24 November 1919). See
also R. B
beginning of the twentiethcentury
Neo-Malthusianism also received the support of prominent suffrage activists
Edith How-Martyn and Teresa Billington, who, along with Alice Vickery and
her daughter-in-law Bessie Drysdale, formed the Women’s Freedom League
Bessie Drysdale (née Ingman Edwards) was already a
freethinking Ethical Society member and supporter of family limitation when
she married Alice
FROM THE START of the twentiethcentury, the political party became a pivotal institution in politics. The decline of the elite party model and the ascendance of the mass party model changed the structure of political procedure in many European countries; it afforded representation to groups previously deprived of political power and promoted the democratisation processes of many systems of contemporary governance. 1 However, along with the expansion of the mass party model, another type of political party took root. The effect on
the great revolutions of the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentiethcenturies,
but the depth of the change it engendered; the radicalism of its ideologies;
and the completeness of its break with the past were all sufﬁcient that the
comparison makes sense. Several historians of the European ‘revolutionary
tradition’ have seen radical Protestantism as the begetter of that tradition,
looking to the British civil wars of the 1640s or to the Dutch revolt of the
1560s and thereafter.1 The Scottish Reformation has a good claim to a place
in the same tradition.
The change in
which has defined itself in terms of its borders in the east and the south. The term
Europe only replaced Christendom under William of Orange (reigned 1689–
1702), when republicanism set the stage for the beginning of colonial trade
(Balibar, 2004). Historically, Islamic and colonial “others” have long defined the
borders of “Europe”. In the late twentiethcentury, decolonization and its effects
brought these borders back within Europe. At the same time, decolonization saw
the construction of what Balibar calls a ‘fictive ethnicity’, or the conflation of the
(Cambridge, Massachusetts 1975), 11 .
7 Examples of halakhic development include Rabbeinu Gershom’s ending of
polygamy around the year 1000, the ending among Ashkenazi Jews of the
practice of yibum (a man marrying his brother’s childless widow) and the
banning of the consumption of legumes on Passover.
8 S.C. Heilman, ‘How did fundamentalism manage to inﬁltrate contemporary
orthodoxy?’ Contemporary Jewry (2005), 258. Lynn Davidman, who uses
Berger’s accommodators-versus-resistors typology in her comparative
analysis of modern Orthodoxy and Lubavitch in the late twentieth
’s entrancing Words
Alone integrates Yeats with the nineteenth century whose inheritance
– Catholic, Protestant and pagan – he did so much to enshrine, for all
of the twentieth-century credentials appropriate to the editor of the
Oxford Book of Modern Verse.1
Yeats’s protégé Frank O’Connor (pseudonym of Michael O’Donovan)
was defined by Declan Kiberd in the judgement that ‘O’Connor’s autobiography in Ireland becomes effectively the autobiography of Ireland’,
and his early short stories caress the tough roots of a Catholic Ireland
aged but undying in his youth. Thus his 1956
-despoilers of the Church. Both
Henry and Edward ravaged her wealth. Even Mary did not restore
her lands. And Elizabeth – committed to the reformed Church of
England as she was – appeared yet more culpable. Deliberately,
she kept sees vacant until she had profited from them and robbed
them by advantageous exchanges. Here Heylyn laid his finger on
that plunder of the Church as an institution, the extent of which
exercised twentieth-century historians. Heylyn showed himself
equally aware of the implications of this weakened economic position for the Church as, for example
Germanicum has ensured that
it has been the subject of detailed historical research. In the early twentiethcentury,Andreas Steinhuber, a Jesuit and long-standing rector of the Germanicum,
published an important history of the Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum.
Steinhuber was still resident in the Germanicum when he was made cardinal. In
his extensive two-volume Geschichte des Kollegium Germanikum Hungarikum in Rom
[History of the Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum in Rome] he explained
the development of the college, drawing on a meticulous analysis of material
–1920 (Chapel Hill and London: The University
of North Carolina Press, 1999), p. 79; Magray, 1998, pp. 56, 66.
54 Lilian Faderman, Surpassing the Love of Men: Romantic Friendship and Love
between Women from the Renaissance to the Present (London: The Women’s
Press, 1981), pp. 16–20.
55 Elizabeth Edwards, ‘Educational Institutions or Extended Families? The
Reconstruction of Gender in Women’s Colleges in the Late Nineteenth and Early
TwentiethCenturies’, Gender and Education, 2 (1990), 17–35 (pp. 26–9).
Building corporate identity
and spiritual energy. It was a valued