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Mediation, relief work and political activism
Brian Heffernan

, intermediate and technical schooling.55 County education ­committees 50 See R. V. Comerford, ‘The British state and the education of Irish Catholics, 1850–1921’, in Janusz Tomiak et al. (eds), Schooling, Educational Policy and Ethnic Identity (New York: New York University Press, 1991), pp. 13–33 and Séamas Ó Buachalla, Education Policy in Twentieth Century Ireland (Dublin: Wolfhound Press, 1988), pp. 209–11. 51 ICD 1920, p. 520. 52 DDA, Walsh papers, 386/6, Downing to Walsh, 8 December 1919. 53 Hansard, series 5 (Commons), cxxi, co. 1451 (24 November 1919). See also R. B

in Freedom and the Fifth Commandment
Marriage, birth control and sexual morality
Laura Schwartz

beginning of the twentieth century Neo-Malthusianism also received the support of prominent suffrage activists Edith How-Martyn and Teresa Billington, who, along with Alice Vickery and her daughter-in-law Bessie Drysdale, formed the Women’s Freedom League in 1907. Bessie Drysdale (née Ingman Edwards) was already a freethinking Ethical Society member and supporter of family limitation when she married Alice

in Infidel feminism
The parliamentary arena
Ami Pedahzur

FROM THE START of the twentieth century, the political party became a pivotal institution in politics. The decline of the elite party model and the ascendance of the mass party model changed the structure of political procedure in many European countries; it afforded representation to groups previously deprived of political power and promoted the democratisation processes of many systems of contemporary governance. 1 However, along with the expansion of the mass party model, another type of political party took root. The effect on

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Abstract only
The Scottish revolution?
Alec Ryrie

the great revolutions of the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but the depth of the change it engendered; the radicalism of its ideologies; and the completeness of its break with the past were all sufficient that the comparison makes sense. Several historians of the European ‘revolutionary tradition’ have seen radical Protestantism as the begetter of that tradition, looking to the British civil wars of the 1640s or to the Dutch revolt of the 1560s and thereafter.1 The Scottish Reformation has a good claim to a place in the same tradition. The change in

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation
Islam and the contestation of citizenship
Shailja Sharma

Europe, which has defined itself in terms of its borders in the east and the south. The term Europe only replaced Christendom under William of Orange (reigned 1689– 1702), when republicanism set the stage for the beginning of colonial trade (Balibar, 2004). Historically, Islamic and colonial “others” have long defined the borders of “Europe”. In the late twentieth century, decolonization and its effects brought these borders back within Europe. At the same time, decolonization saw the construction of what Balibar calls a ‘fictive ethnicity’, or the conflation of the

in Postcolonial minorities in Britain and France
A typology
Benjamin J. Elton

(Cambridge, Massachusetts 1975), 11 . 7 Examples of halakhic development include Rabbeinu Gershom’s ending of polygamy around the year 1000, the ending among Ashkenazi Jews of the practice of yibum (a man marrying his brother’s childless widow) and the banning of the consumption of legumes on Passover. 8 S.C. Heilman, ‘How did fundamentalism manage to infiltrate contemporary orthodoxy?’ Contemporary Jewry (2005), 258. Lynn Davidman, who uses Berger’s accommodators-versus-resistors typology in her comparative analysis of modern Orthodoxy and Lubavitch in the late twentieth

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
A study in perjury
Owen Dudley Edwards

’s entrancing Words Alone integrates Yeats with the nineteenth century whose i­nheritance – Catholic, Protestant and pagan – he did so much to enshrine, for all of the twentieth-century credentials appropriate to the editor of the Oxford Book of Modern Verse.1 Yeats’s protégé Frank O’Connor (pseudonym of Michael O’Donovan) was defined by Declan Kiberd in the judgement that ‘O’Connor’s autobiography in Ireland becomes effectively the autobiography of Ireland’, and his early short stories caress the tough roots of a Catholic Ireland aged but undying in his youth. Thus his 1956

in Irish Catholic identities
Rosemary O’Day

-despoilers of the Church. Both Henry and Edward ravaged her wealth. Even Mary did not restore her lands. And Elizabeth – committed to the reformed Church of England as she was – appeared yet more culpable. Deliberately, she kept sees vacant until she had profited from them and robbed them by advantageous exchanges. Here Heylyn laid his finger on that plunder of the Church as an institution, the extent of which exercised twentieth-century historians. Heylyn showed himself equally aware of the implications of this weakened economic position for the Church as, for example

in The Debate on the English Reformation
Urban Fink

Germanicum has ensured that it has been the subject of detailed historical research. In the early twentieth century,Andreas Steinhuber, a Jesuit and long-standing rector of the ­Germanicum, published an important history of the Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum. Steinhuber was still resident in the Germanicum when he was made cardinal. In his extensive two-volume Geschichte des Kollegium Germanikum Hungarikum in Rom [History of the Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum in Rome] he explained the development of the college, drawing on a meticulous analysis of material of the

in College communities abroad
Carmen M. Mangion

–1920 (Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press, 1999), p. 79; Magray, 1998, pp. 56, 66. 54 Lilian Faderman, Surpassing the Love of Men: Romantic Friendship and Love between Women from the Renaissance to the Present (London: The Women’s Press, 1981), pp. 16–20. 55 Elizabeth Edwards, ‘Educational Institutions or Extended Families? The Reconstruction of Gender in Women’s Colleges in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries’, Gender and Education, 2 (1990), 17–35 (pp. 26–9). Building corporate identity 169 and spiritual energy. It was a valued

in Contested identities