, as described in Chapter
11 Banyamulengue literally means people from Mulengue, in Swahili. Traditionally, this
term has been given in South Kivu to people associated with the wave of migrations from
Rwanda and Burundi in the early twentieth century, who settled in the high plateaux of
the Minembwe massif in between the territories of Kalehe, Mwenga and Fizi, and who
tend to be of a Tutsi background.
12 As seen in Chapter 3 this included the transferring of Belgian and white-owned land to
selected Rwandan/Tutsi who were made Congolese nationals after the
British regional power. 74 It enabled the Shah to state that ‘in 25 years Iran will be one of the world's five flourishing and prosperous nations … I think that in 10 years’ time our country will be as you [Britain] are now’. 75
One of his more well-known actions was the replacement of the traditional Islamic calendar, based on the migration of the Prophet Mohammad from Mecca to Medina, to a fictitious calendar centred on the coronation of Cyrus the Great. 76 Shifting from a religious calendar to one that celebrated the reign of
A visual narrative of the Romanian transition to capitalism
Anca Mihaela Pusca
ago by the commies. Add to all this the massive migration of the
population to every corner of Europe in search of a better life, add
the mobile phones and internet coffee shops and you get a new
species that will change the face of this land forever.
The face of this land has already been changed, as we will see
in the photographs taken by the group. And along with these
changes, that may seem natural and to be expected by many,
what has also changed is an entire imagination, an entire
way in which a society or group of people thought of themselves, or to
up to the end of 2007.
For details, see Conclusions of the Copenhagen European Council (Brussels, 1993).
See The Hague Programme: Strengthening Freedom, Security and Justice in the European Union
(Brussels, November 2004).
See, for example, Malcolm Anderson, ‘Border Regimes and Security in an Enlarged European
Community: Implications of the entry into force of the Amsterdam Treaty’, EUI Working
Paper No. 8 (2000); Eberhard Bort, ‘Illegal Migration and Cross-Border Crime: Challenges
at the Eastern Frontier of the European Union’, EUI Working Paper No. 9 (2000
8 For details, see the 2005 Convention between the Kingdom of Belgium, the Federal Republic
of Germany, the Kingdom of Spain, the French Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, the
Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Republic of Austria on the stepping up of Cross- border Cooperation, particularly in Combating Terrorism, Cross Border Crime and Illegal Migration.
9 Security considerations led to two different versions of Europol’s Organised Crime Threat
Assessment (OCTA) being developed, one for member states only. The OCTA was produced
for the first time in