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Corinne Fowler

remains the risk that poetry publishing embeds a prejudicial distinction between page and stage in its publishing practices. Democratizing poetry should be carefully distinguished from processes that ghettoize it. At the time of this book’s going to press (2012), therefore, the future seemed uncertain for British black poets. The post-2008 ‘austerity measures’ have adversely affected a publishing sector that was already under-resourced. The funding to grassroots writing organizations has also been substantially depleted, partly because additional funding was diverted

in Postcolonial Manchester
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Jonathan Bignell

Expressionist movie’ ( The Observer , 17 April 1977). Michael Ratcliffe’s review for The Times on 18 April 1977 argued: ‘There is no doubt that the reductionist scale and austerity of Beckett’s late work is effective on the small screen, but the dynamics are pitched so low that if the plays were any longer you might well drop off. The timing of Ghost Trio was mesmeric, and Donald McWhinnie’s direction, in which the camera advanced with tremulous hesitancy on the actor (Ronald Pickup) like a camera in the prehistoric days of moving films, created a world out of time and

in Beckett on screen
Neil Cornwell

ahead to Godot’. How It Is, in which ‘Beckett reached a new level of austerity’ (Esslin, Th. Abs., 41) was the product of ‘struggling to struggle on from where the Unnamable left me off, that is with the next next to nothing’ (Beckett: quoted by Knowlson, 461), and takes on a form of pared down minimalism in apparently fragmentary unpunctuated short (not exactly) paragraphs (variously termed ‘units’, ‘strophes’ or ‘versets’), restrictive in style and, superficially at least, in new content, though not in length (extending to 160 pages). Stretching the Unnamable

in The absurd in literature
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The years of radicalisation and consolidation
Par Kumaraswami, Antoni Kapcia and Meesha Nehru

fragmentation and economic austerity that were to ensue, and the delicate balance on the individual–collective continuum was about to be severely challenged. Notes 1 ‘This book has a great value. That is why it is given to you free of charge. Its value lies in the accumulated labour implied in the knowledge contained within its pages, in the hours of effort spent producing it and because it constitutes a leap forward in the struggle for man to be himself. Its greatest value will, however, lie in the use that you make of it. We are certain of that use, and of its great value

in Literary culture in Cuba
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The years of crisis and reassessment
Par Kumaraswami, Antoni Kapcia and Meesha Nehru

. The most important shortage was that of paper for printing, now coupled with a new set of priorities, born out of extreme austerity: presses now were to be predominantly used for education. Around 1993, journalistic production was also strictly rationalised, newspapers 134 Literary culture in Cuba reducing their frequency (from daily to weekly) to maintain print runs as far as possible (although soon cut, until 1998), while other and specialist or local journals ceased to publish. For writers and journalists accustomed to the availability of textual space, these

in Literary culture in Cuba
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The politics of food in Maria Edgeworth’s children’s fiction
Sarah Moss

discovered the modern primitivist Rousseau, and found his austerities so appealing that he became a disciple for the rest of his life. 69 She continues, ‘in general company he was either tongue-tied or severe, and both his clothes and his table manners gave real offence’. The connection is obvious, and in later life Edgeworth was clear that Day was the origin of Forrester. In itself, this is not necessarily important; most of Edgeworth’s work contains characters who were recognised by readers of the day, including others in Forrester . But the

in Spilling the beans
Catherine Maxwell

. When we study Pater’s interest in style or form, we encounter two more of his key critical terms that describe the labour of disciplined artists. In the first place, the Greek ascêsis , or ‘discipline’, which for the modern reader can have a rather unpleasant savour of monastic austerity, but which for Pater, one suspects, has a pleasurable, even slightly erotic edge in that it describes the energetic discipline of Greek athletes training in the palaestra , young men stripped for strenuous exercise or, as he puts in the Preface to The Renaissance , ‘the charm of

in Second sight
Michael J. Franklin

their Padras (the Bramins) living all around it. They live, Arabella, (except from the austerities, in some instances, in their religion) the most inoffensively and happily of all created beings—their Pythagorean tenets† teaching them, from their earliest infancy, the lesson of kindness and benevolence; nor do they intentionally hurt any living thing:—from their temperance they derive health, and from the regulation of their passions, contentment; and come immediately under that description of Pope, They ask no angel’s wings, no seraph’s fire; But think, admitted to

in Hartly House, Calcutta
Marie Helena Loughlin

that austerity and scrupulous wisdom which is only nourished by fastings, and only covered with haircloths. There is another prudence, which all understanding persons make profession of following, and which has no small affinity to thy amorous nature. Agnes. I of an amorous nature!? My physiognomy must certainly be very deceitful, or else you are not perfectly well acquainted with the rules of that science!6 There is nothing which touches me less than this passion, and for these three years that I have been a nun it has not given me the least disturbance. Angelica

in Same-Sex Desire in Early Modern England, 1550–1735
Byron and Italian Catholicism
Bernard Beatty

ridiculing Catholicism. Thus, Catholic ‘repentance’ coincides with a determination to sin (stanza 1); Catholic clergy have too much power and are mainly concerned with getting money by saying Masses for the dead to relieve the pains of Purgatory (stanza 2 and, similarly, 98); Catholicism is a religion of excessive austerity and of excessive licence (stanzas 7–​9). These are the only direct references to Catholicism. Yet the placing of the poem’s action in relation to the liturgical year is real enough and new. If we read Byron’s letters before 1816, his references to

in Byron and Italy