A history of the US consular service

This book reconstructs American consular activity in Ireland from 1790 to 1913 and elucidates the interconnectedness of America's foreign interests, Irish nationalism and British imperialism. Its originality lies in that it is based on an interrogation of American, British and Irish archives, and covers over one hundred years of American, Irish and British relations through the post of the American consular official while also uncovering the consul's role in seminal events such as the War of 1812, the 1845–51 Irish famine, the American Civil War, Fenianism and mass Irish emigration. The book is a history of the men who filled posts as consuls, vice consuls, deputy consuls and consular agents. It reveals their identities, how they interpreted and implemented US foreign policy, their outsider perspective on events in both Ireland and America and their contribution to the expanding transatlantic relationship.

Parliamentary, presidential or prime ministerial?

11 Nordic government(s): parliamentary, presidential or prime ministerial? It is evident that Finland has been moving closer to the parliamentary states of Western Europe and that there are hardly any grounds for the epithet ‘semipresidential. (Nousiainen 2001: 108) This chapter focuses on the executive–parties dimension (Lijphart 1999) and in particular on two striking differences in the nature of the political executive across the Nordic region. First, there is the contrast, in Lijphart’s terms, between the executive–legislative balance systems of the

in Scandinavian politics today
Banning the ‘five techniques’

The use of the ‘five techniques’ in Northern Ireland in August and October 1971 was met with a variety of responses and reactions. These are the subject of this and the following chapter. The present chapter focuses on the government’s responses to the use of the techniques and, more specifically, its responses to the criticisms the techniques were met with. Its starting

in Interrogation, intelligence and security
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time be compelled to yield it back to the giver. The county towns, as an elite class of regional centres which was largely defined by about 1100, would always be seen from the point of view of royal government as means for the expression and assertion of central authority. 1 Meanwhile, a second and no less significant basis of urban rule lay in customary practices of self-regulation in the neighbourhoods which made up the town

in Towns in medieval England

9 ‘Modernising’ the system 1951–79 The incoming Conservative Government of 1951 had no developed plans for reforming local government. The Butskillist common ground between the Conservative and the Labour Party encompassed a tacit consensus on the structure and functions of the system as it had developed into a more service-orientated approach since 1945. Underlying this common outlook also ran an undercurrent of modernising zeal that had propelled Jowitt, Willink and, later, Bevan to consider the restructuring of the system into larger units. During the 1950s

in Explaining local government
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12 New Labour How new is New Labour? As the tenor of this book indicates, there are no instant revolutions in British government, rather a gradual evolution of ideas towards eventual change either through legislation or differing patterns of political and social behaviour. Apart from restructuring the machinery for decision-making within local authorities many New Labour initiatives were established elements of the party’s policy before Tony Blair assumed the leadership. Labour governments in recent times have married these initiatives to many of the trends

in Explaining local government
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11 Thatcher and Major ‘It looked for a time as if local authorities might be cut right back to rubbish collection and street lights – the kind of services they could reasonably be expected to provide out of money they could raise themselves.’1 Sarah Hogg’s summary of the state of inter-governmental relations at the end of Thatcher’s reign is indicative of the decline in trust between central and local government during the Thatcher and Major administrations. It is probable that in 1979 the incoming Conservative Government had no such consequences in mind

in Explaining local government

8 War and social democracy Undermining the dual-polity ethos of the nineteenth century opened the door to an insidious encroachment of central controls and manipulation of local government services and structure by central government. During the 1930s a general mood of modernisation and streamlining attached to economies of scale pervaded radical thinking in relation to service provision. The major utilities – gas, electricity and water – along with transport such as the rail services were viewed as national rather than local concerns that needed to be supplied

in Explaining local government

7 The slow road to ‘modernisation’ The inter-war years were dominated by a resurgent Conservative Party. Many of its members’ sympathies still lay, as regards local governance, on the Salisbury plain of a dual polity. However, fears that urban government might be captured by socialists and used to further ownership of the means of production compelled Conservatives to reluctantly interfere in local politics. Even Conservatives like Neville Chamberlain who sympathised with New Liberal values of equality of opportunity tempered their support for the larger

in Explaining local government
The ad hoc local governments of mid-Victorian Britain

3 Compromise and confusion: the ad hoc local governments of mid-Victorian Britain Pressures to restructure local government, it may be argued, derive from the concern of practically minded national and local politicians and administrators to adapt its many institutions to deal with the problems thrown up by the growth of cities, the need for a more mobile workforce, the social consequences of enclosures or the demand for improved systems of transport. Smellie argues that Behind the reform bills themselves were revolutions in industry and transport, in medical

in Explaining local government