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strategies in terms of race and masculinity to keep politically suspect recruits out of the army. In Britain, however, most Britons were perfectly aware that the Highland regiments were not ethnically ‘pure’. In that context, then, the superlative qualities of Highland soldiers functioned as an inspirational tool, an image of ideal masculinity and racial superiority to which all potential recruits could

in Martial races

. Scotland was increasingly expected to look like a nation of Highlanders. Highland regiments had been incorporated into the British army after Culloden in great numbers and figured prominently on American and European battlefields. Their ‘ethnic’ uniforms were depicted in newspapers and the arts and aroused considerable interest throughout Britain and Europe. Scottish writers such as Sir Walter Scott (1771–1832) and later R.L. Stevenson (1850–94) created highly successful Highlander novels which made Scotland a place of interest for European Romanticism.23 Tourists

in Warrior dreams

‘distinctive symbols’ of Scotland. In 2008 they registered a Tilburg tartan with the Scottish Tartan Authority (No. 7464). The two world wars also inspire Scottish commemorations in France and Belgium. As we have seen, Scottish military pipe bands made a particularly strong impression on the Continent, and their memory has been revived with ‘commemorative pipe bands’. The 48th Highlanders of Holland, for instance, were founded in the Dutch town of Apeldoorn in 1991 to commemorate the Our Scottish past: commemorations135 48th Highland Regiment of the Canadian army (est. 1891

in Warrior dreams

trial which was reported in the Scots Magazine it was alleged in his defence that he had not carried arms, but the Court observed that a Highland regiment never marched without a piper and therefore that his bagpipe in the eyes of the law was an instrument of war.’12 Because of their weapon-­like status, bagpipes were temporarily banned in Scotland after Culloden with the Disarming Act. The mid-­eighteenth century saw a ‘steep decline’ of piping in the Highlands, and by 1770 ‘there was concern that bagpipe playing was in danger of extinction’.13 The friendly societies

in Warrior dreams

– more fun perhaps than other national mythologies. To impersonate a Scot means to adopt his noise and colours, to stun and awe audiences, to be a marching, martial spectacle. Scottish costume – with its bright tartans, regimental splendour, and the vaguely erotic kilt – causes excitement with its extravagant mixture of militarism and comedy. There is something highly theatrical about the Scots – a fact that was and still is appreciated by many Scots themselves. Scots have dressed up ‘as themselves’ in the past when styling their Highland regiments for the military

in Warrior dreams
James Hogg’s deconstruction of Scottish military masculinities in The Three Perils of Man, or War, Women, and Witchcraft!

propose that in Hogg’s medieval ‘chivalric romance’, cannibalism and hunger deconstruct the ideology of self-sacrifice of the British soldier. The anonymous reviewer of the Monthly Censor might have feared the impact that Hogg’s novel could have had on the public’s opinion about British militarism which, at the time, was promoted through the myth of the Highland warrior. Heather Streets contends that though ‘most Britons were perfectly aware that the Highland regiments were not ethnically “pure” … the superlative qualities of Highland soldiers functioned as an

in Martial masculinities

Highland regiments have been seen as resolving the conflicts of Scottish history. 46 There can also be little doubt that the image and reputation of Scots regiments in the British Empire had an effect upon the national self-image of Scotland, even if recruitment was so often a badge of economic problems and unemployment. Some Scots soldiers remained overseas as settlers, but the returning soldier

in The Scots in South Africa

imitation of the highly distinctive Highland military music – frequently with such success that the strength of the Indian pipe bands rivalled those in actual Highland regiments. Moreover, Highland dress was adopted on more than one occasion by Indian ‘martial race’ regiments. In one noted example, guest nights in the officers’ mess of the 2nd Gurkha regiment featured Gurkhas dressed in kilts, who entered

in Martial races
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of Service of the 42nd Royal Highland Regiment’, p. 23. 51 ‘Reception of the 42nd Highlanders’, p. 4. 52 ‘Letters from Welshmen Engaged in the Ashantee War’, p. 6. 53

in The Victorian soldier in Africa
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The Albany Museum, Grahamstown

either minerals or shells. 21 Annual Report, 1888. There was not to be another woman curator/director until Dr Webley was appointed in 1999. 22 The library opened in the jail at the top of the High Street. It was used by garrison soldiers; a 72nd Highland

in Museums and empire