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, several specialist camps, especially in London, employed civilians for specific firms. Finally, some internees, particularly on the Isle of Man, became engaged in work outside the camps. In Knockaloe thousands of men refused to work. Whereas those ‘whose day is filled with useful work are contented . . . those who lead an idle life are invariably discontented and their health sooner or later suffers in consequence’. They presented ‘a pitiful sight’ and many passed their time ‘gambling, smoking or quarrelling’.45 A United States Embassy report on Douglas from May 1916

in Prisoners of Britain

perceptible exiting of small numbers over many years. But, over the long run, they accumulated into massive aggregate migrations – and indeed drained the countryside. This was achieved mainly by internal migration, but it also fed emigration. Three variants of the rural emigration process spring to mind: the Isle of Man, the Western Highlands of Scotland and Swaledale in North Yorkshire

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world
Open Access (free)

Isle of Man. The ‘internment of aliens’ – a peculiar and rather hysterical measure taken by the British government after Dunkirk. He had only been married for four months. But I suspect he really enjoyed the ironic freedom of that year. This is my father as an alien. He is alien to Britain and to English culture. Surrounded by those who are not alien to him, he is captured in an alien environment. And this image of him as the central figure is one which is entirely alien to me. His existence on the edges of my childhood, his refusal to engage with me or to challenge

in Austerity baby
The historiographical legacy of internment

who was interned on the Isle of Man, Gaetano Rossi, for example, promote the idea that the ‘largest number’ of the internees opted to remain interned: They were asked if they were prepared to collaborate with the British authorities. Some of them agreed, but they did not say so openly because such a declaration could have caused problems for them in the camp; many internees were not disposed to go against their own ~99~ Experiencing war as the 'enemy other' country to help Britain. It was not a question of being Fascist or antiFascist, it was a question that we

in Experiencing war as the ‘enemy other’
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ammunition of both states, which involved official opinion, the press and Parliament. In the British case much newspaper attention focused upon the experiences of civilians in Ruhleben, contrasting them with the apparently comfortable lifestyle faced by those on the Isle of Man and elsewhere. Both press and parliamentary opinion also compared the working conditions of those British military captives labouring on the eastern front with the apparently easier employment experiences of Germans working in Britain. Official opinion M2959 - PANAYI 9780719078347 PRINT.indd 231

in Prisoners of Britain

thousands, of German prisoners took the issue into their own hands by trying to escape. Largely because of the impossibility of crossing the North Sea, the English Channel or the Irish Sea (in the case of those on the Isle of Man), only three appear to have made succeeded in getting back to Germany: Wilhelm Kröpke, Johannes Schmidt-Klafleth and, most famously, Gunther Plüschow. The overwhelming majority faced capture and subsequent punishment. Measuring the numbers of Germans who tried to flee proves problematic. One source has identified over 500.4 ‘Ninety-eight men were

in Prisoners of Britain
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British supporters of the refugees

, and with British public opinion generally, for his support of the refugees. On 16 October 1940, a report had appeared in the News Chronicle criticising the conditions in the Rushen Women’s Internment Camp on the Isle of Man,14 its source being the FGLC. The local newspaper, the Isle of Man Examiner, soon deduced that, since George Bell was the only one of the FGLC’s list of British patrons to have visited the camp, the blame for these allegations must rest with him. In a blistering attack, the Examiner accused Bell of being ‘the self-appointed champion of Nazis and

in A matter of intelligence

escort the home to which I never returned.61 After late October 1914 civilian internment policy reached something of a stasis. Although some growth in the numbers of those incarcerated occurred as a result of people being transported to camps from the colonies and from ships on the high seas, the overall number of internees declined, with about 3,000 released between November and early February.62 But during the winter and spring of 1914-15 the Douglas and, more especially, Knockaloe camps on the Isle of Man (where the overwhelming majority of civilian internees would

in Prisoners of Britain
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thoughts of a young visitor to Europe just over a hundred years ago never less than fascinating to read. In particular, it seemed important for once to be somehow in touch with my mother’s family history. For a number of years it had been my father’s life, in Germany in the 1930s and as a refugee in England, interned for a year in the Isle of Man, that had preoccupied me. On my mother’s side, the dramas of persecution and flight were less immediate, a pre-history to her own life and experience. Even her parents were small children when anti-semitic pogroms in eastern

in Writing otherwise
The Free German League of Culture

Class ‘B’. Hinze was arrested on 16 May, police swooping on his home at 31 Boundary Road, London NW8. Hinze was interned on the Isle of Man, being held in Central Promenade Camp, Douglas, but surveillance did not end there. An MI5 agent, almost certainly Claud Sykes, who visited the camp, reported: A Communist called Hinse [sic] and the notorious Colonel Kahle (GPU chief in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War, according to information I received at various times) gave a lot of trouble in the camp, according to [Martin] Sander, and everyone was relieved when they went

in A matter of intelligence