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Slavery, market revolution and Atlantic capitalism

1 The scope of accumulation and the reach of moral perception: slavery, market revolution and Atlantic capitalism Robin Blackburn In this essay I reconsider the relationship between the rise of capitalism in Britain and the United States and the emergence of a very intense regime of plantation slavery in the Americas. This interlinked process is seen as prompting countervailing movements that seek to limit or challenge slavery in the name of ‘free air’, ‘free labour’ or the cause of humanity. Slavery seemed a distant memory in Elizabethan England and yet was to

in Emancipation and the remaking of the British imperial world

Representations of Rwanda have been shaped by the display of bodies and bones at Tutsi genocide memorial sites. This phenomenon is most often only studied from the perspective of moral dimensions. This article aims in contrast to cover the issues related to the treatment of human remains in Rwanda for commemorative purposes from a historical perspective. To this end, it is based on the archives of the commissions in charge of genocide memory in Rwanda, as well as interviews with key memorial actors. This study shows the evolution of memorial practices since 1994 and the hypermateriality of bodies in their use as symbols, as well as their demobilisation for the purposes of reconciliation policies.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal

Since the early 1990s, armed actors have invaded territories in the Chocó and Antioquia departments of Colombia, inhabited by Afro-Colombians and Indians whose collective rights in these territories had recently been legally recognised. Based on long-term fieldwork among the Emberá Katío, this article examines social, cosmological and ritual alterations and re-organisation around violent death. Following a national policy of post-conflict reparations, public exhumations and identifications of human remains reveal new local modes of understanding and administration. In particular, suicide, hitherto completely unknown to the Emberá, broke out in a multitude of cases, mostly among the youth. Local discourse attributes this phenomenon to the number of stray corpses resulting from the violence, who are transformed into murderous spirits which shamans can no longer control. The analysis focusses on the unprecedented articulation of a renewed eschatology, the intricate effects of an internal political reorganisation and the simultaneous inroad into their space of new forms of armed insurrectional violence. Thus the article will shed light on the emergence of a new transitional moral economy of death among the Emberá.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
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Continuity and change in Radical moral politics, 1820– 70

This book is the first in-depth study of the changing nature of moral politics within working-class Radicalism between 1820 and 1870. It highlights how Radicalism's attitudes to morality and everyday life shifted from a festive and libertarian culture to a more austere and ascetic politics. This has been done through study of the lives, activism and intellectual influences of a number of key leaders of working-class Radicalism. This culture emphasized moral improvement, temperance and frugality after the 1840s. Although the London Working Men's Association (LWMA) has often been regarded as elitist and reluctant to adopt a leadership position within organised Chartism, several key members were instrumental in forming the organisational basis for Chartism outside of London. These tours illustrate how not only Vincent but many Chartist activists achieved success by adopting the festive and populist ethos evident amongst London Radicals. In reality the advocacy of teetotalism and education were part of a popular ethical turn within the movement, and O'Connor's attempts to present the danger of a split movement was 'artificial'. The principles and strategies that William Lovett and Henry Vincent developed over the course of 1840 became accepted as a core aspect of Chartist political culture. By 1842, Ethical Radicalism became hegemonic within the movement after 1842 largely because of the constitutional, peaceful, and moral politics of electoral interventions. Working-class moral politics was a product of working- class Radicalism in the first half of the century rather than a post- Chartist imposition.

Living with the enemy in First World War France

This study considers the ways in which locals of the occupied Nord responded to and understood their situation across four years of German domination, focusing in particular on key behaviours adopted by locals, and the way in which such conduct was perceived. Behaviours examined include forms of complicity, misconduct, disunity, criminality, and resistance. This local case study calls into question overly-patriotic readings of this experience, and suggests a new conceptual vocabulary to help understand certain civilian behaviours under military occupation.

Drawing on extensive primary documentation – from diaries and letters to posters and police reports – this book proposes that a dominant ‘occupied culture’ existed among locals. This was a moral-patriotic framework, born of both pre-war socio-cultural norms and daily interaction with the enemy, that guided conduct and was especially concerned with what was considered acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. Those who breached the limits of this occupied culture faced criticism and sometimes punishment. This study attempts to disentangle perceptions and reality, but also argues that the clear beliefs and expectations of the occupied French comprise a fascinating subject of study in their own right. They provide an insight into national and local identity, and especially the way in which locals understood their role within the wider conflict.

This book will be useful to undergraduates, post-graduates and academics interested in an understudied aspect of the history of modern France, the First World War, and military occupations.

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 193 Conclusion Chartism’s moral politics and improvement culture were strategic interventions rather than dilutions of the movement’s objectives and aspirations. Those Chartist leaders who turned to the politics of improvement did so to build the movement towards a position of Radical working-​class hegemony. In the process, this moral politics and its associated culture would grapple with and thereby alleviate social grievances in a way that did not incorporate the plotting and revolutionary violence which had failed in 1839. However, this approach proved to

in Popular virtue
Moral prevention work with girls

3 ‘Modesty is the sister of virtue’: moral prevention work with girls The old adage that ‘prevention is better than cure’ began to be recognised from the end of the nineteenth century, by those engaged in philanthropic work with women involved in prostitution.1 To try and prevent girls from ‘falling’ became the aim of a variety of informal and voluntary organisations, rather than focusing solely on the reformation of those who had already ‘fallen’.2 This chapter focuses on the organisations and discourses in Northern Ireland concerned with preserving female

in Regulating sexuality
The infidel roots of Chartist culture

 14 14 Popular virtue ostensibly sensational material was consistent with, and designed to illustrate, the wider moral philosophy and social critique that Radicalism developed throughout the 1820s and 1830s. The popularity and success of this project meant that Cleave, Hetherington, Watson, and their associates formed a significant aspect of the intellectual and cultural backbone of Chartism. In doing so they perpetuated and modified the culture of the ‘Radical Underworld’ that preceded Chartism.7 This culture of moral and religious heterodoxy, Republicanism and

in Popular virtue
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5 Sexuality Concerns about increases in young people’s criminality during the Second World War and into the 1960s were accompanied by similar anxieties about sexual activity. Both were viewed by the institutions associated with the state and civil society as symptoms of a decline in Christian values and moral standards. Teenage sexual ‘precocity’ was seen as a social problem because it was connected, in the minds of its critics, with increased incidence of venereal disease, a rising ‘tide’ of births outside marriage (‘illegitimacy’), and cycles of poor parenting

in Policing youth
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3 HERCULINE BARBIN introduction Many readers will be familiar with the existence of the memoirs of Herculine Barbin in one form or another, re-edited as they were by Michel Foucault in 1978.1 And they might have wondered how this autobiographical text, found in 1868 upon Barbin’s death, relates to the rationale of sex as the inscription of a person in a social and moral order as deciphered from medical case histories. After all, Foucault clearly speaks in terms of ‘identity’ in introducing the memoirs in their English translation. He labels them as ‘memoirs that

in Doubting sex