in distress. By the mid-nineteenth century, when
mass migration propelled large numbers of English cross the Atlantic
for a new life ‘out west’, English ethnic societies had also taken hold in
Canada. These associations developed everywhere, with their spread
intrinsically connected to the general settlement patterns of the English.
Such was the proliferation and interest that, in 1881, one of the older
organizations in the United States, the Sons of St George in Philadelphia,
2 The English diaspora in NorthAmerica
had so many hundreds of members that its
Canada as an extension of their homeland economic sphere.
The miner or engineer, the trader or businessman, went back and forth
across the Atlantic and other oceans. Culturally, even in the early days of
settlement, English associations continued to connect English migrants,
but also their descendants, with England. It was within this structural
336 The English diaspora in NorthAmerica
context that Cooper personified the closeness of the two worlds in the
immigrant’s life, the old and new homelands, with his personal narrative
contextualizing the transnational
and oath-bound loyalty. What connected the medieval and the
modern manifestations was this aspect ‘of an ethical integrity that can
turn into secrecy’,2 for this underpinned forged bonds of fraternity and,
The emergence of the OSStG and the Sons of England marked a shift in
English associational culture in NorthAmerica. The elite charities named
for St George remained a strong and persistent force, but these were
middle-class and civic-elite instances of ‘hierarchical’ aid, where moral
as well as financial judgements often were passed upon passive
apparently mainstream commercial present. Tattoos function as symptoms of a psychological and social deviance commodified in the construction of crime as entertainment, but also as signs of a self-confident and empowered youth culture closely linked to tattooing’s subcultural origins. The ostensibly divergent roles of tattooing as atavistic outsider art and emergent fashion become difficult to disentangle.
This chapter offers three case studies of the depiction of tattoos in NorthAmerican TV crime drama in order to interrogate these multiple
Can reading make us better citizens? This book sheds light on how the act of reading can be mobilised as a powerful civic tool in service of contemporary civil and political struggles for minority recognition, rights, and representation in North America. Crossing borders and queering citizenship reimagines the contours of contemporary citizenship by connecting queer and citizenship theories to the idea of an engaged reading subject. This book offers a new approach to studying the act of reading, theorises reading as an integral element of the basic unit of the state: the citizen. By theorising the act of reading across borders as a civic act that queers citizenship, the book advances an alternative model of belonging through civic readerly engagement. Exploring work by seven US, Mexican, Canadian, and Indigenous authors, including Gloria Anzaldúa, Dorothy Allison, Gregory Scofield, Guillermo Gómez-Peña, Erín Moure, Junot Díaz, and Yann Martel, the book offers sensitive interpretations of how reading can create citizenship practices that foreground and value recognition, rights, and representation for all members of a political system.
Very large numbers of people began to depart the British Isles for the New Worlds after about 1770. This was a pioneering movement, a rehearsal for modern international migration. This book contends that emigration history is not seamless, that it contains large shifts over time and place, and that the modern scale and velocity of mobility have very particular historical roots. The Isle of Man is an ideal starting point in the quest for the engines and mechanisms of emigration, and a particular version of the widespread surge in British emigration in the 1820s. West Sussex was much closer to the centres of the expansionary economy in the new age. North America was the earliest and the greatest theatre of oceanic emigration in which the methods of mass migration were pioneered. Landlocked Shropshire experienced some of the earliest phases of British industrialisation, notably in the Ironbridge/Coalbrookdale district, deep inland on the River Severn. The turmoil in the agrarian and demographic foundations of life reached across the British archipelago. In West Cork and North Tipperary, there was clear evidence of the great structural changes that shook the foundations of these rural societies. The book also discusses the sequences and effects of migration in Wales, Swaledale, Cornwall, Kent, London, and Scottish Highlands. It also deals with Ireland's place in the more generic context of the origins of migration from the British Isles. The common historical understanding is that the pre-industrial population of the British Isles had been held back by Malthusian checks.
The article surveys two centuries of Gothic Revivals in the architecture and popular culture of the United States, from the Carpenter Gothic of 1830-1860 through the castle-building of the Gilded Age and the Gothic Revival structures of the early twentieth century to todays Renaissance Faires. American Gothic is fantastic, ‘reviving’ a time and place that never existed on those shores. The earlier Gothic Revival castles represented an aristocratic and anti-democratic tradition, while in the twentieth century, Gothic revival styles are postmodern and ephemeral. These outward manifestations of the Gothic image in America show how fascination with the medieval was transformed from a pastime of the wealthy few to the masscult many, one way in which North America has appropriated and transformed the European Middle Ages through serious architectural practice and market-driven parody of the Gothic.
This essay introduces this special issue on ‘Romanticism and the “New Gothic”’, which contains revisions of essays presented at a special seminar at the 1999 joint conferences of the International Gothic Association (IGA) and the North American Society for the Study of Romanticism (NASSR) held in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Hogle argues that the ‘Gothic’ as a highly counterfeit and generically mixed mode in the eighteenth century was a quite new, rather than revived old, aesthetic which allowed for the disguised projection - or really abjection - of current middle-class cultural fears into symbols that only seemed antiquated, supernatural, or monstrous on the surface. Romantic writers thus faced this mode as a symbolic location where feared anomalies of their own moment could be faced and displaced, and such writers reacted to this possibility using some similar and quite different techniques. Post-Romantic writers, in turn, ranging from Emily Dickinson all the way to the writers and directors of modern films with Gothic elements, have since proceeded to make the Gothic quite new again, in memory of and reaction to Romantic-era uses of the new Gothic. This recurrent remaking of the Gothic comes less from the survival of certain features and more from the cultural purposes of displacing new fears into symbols that recall both the eighteenth-century Gothic and Romantic redactions of it. The papers in this special issue cover different points in this history of a complex relationship among aesthetic modes.
liberal humanitarian institutions, which have depended on the financial and political capital of
the US. Far from promoting a final and permanent peace, the new security strategy situates the US in an
inter-state system in which war is possible at any time, in any location, with any rival, enemy
or former ally. How might we explain this apparent shift in American strategy? A growing number of analysts, particularly NorthAmericans, consider that we are seeing the end
of the post-war liberal order. And they attribute liberal crisis to two fundamental factors
A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector
Kevin O’Sullivan and Réiseal Ní Chéilleachair
Introduction In October 2016 the New York Review of Books published an article by
International Rescue Committee President David Miliband titled ‘The Best Ways
to Deal with the Refugee Crisis’. It began with a predictable target. US
Presidential candidate Donald Trump’s claims about a ‘tremendous
flow’ of Syrian refugees making their way to NorthAmerica were based in
‘myth, not fact’, Miliband wrote ( Miliband, 2016 ). Not only that: they also openly belittled the