In 1942 Chapman had dreamed of the day when the missionaries would return to find 'a little Church pure as gold and tested in the fire'. The first post-war synod in 1946 was a tetchy affair. Burmese ministers were aggrieved that their wartime exploits had not been recognised. During the early 1950s the additional criteria were tested in a trio of cases in Kachin State. The first involved the Yunnan Tibetan Christian Mission (YTCM). The second case, in April 1951, involved the Roman Catholic Mission in Myitkyina. Unlike their predecessors, post-war missionaries were unburdened with the baggage of colonialism and were more open-minded. 'Buddhist missionaries and communist myrmidons' dissuaded Christian children from attending church on Sundays and unsettled everyone else too. Many important issues were addressed in the 1960 Synod. Methodists in Upper Burma had gained a reputation for their innovative social projects.
General Ne Win was ruthlessly radical in 1962. Civil society in Upper Burma was a shambles. People in Monywa detested local politicians. They were interested only in pleasing 'big men' in Rangoon. The Revolutionary Council alienated Buddhist leaders when it tried to impose its own moral code. The press had been relatively free under U Nu, but after 1962 newspapers were heavily censored. Burmanisation was a euphemism for xenophobia. The 300,000 ethnic Chinese in Burma fared little better. They were compromised by the activities of the Burmese and Chinese Communist Parties. The Working People's Daily reported that 9,986 foreigners had left Burma during the first six months of 1964. On 19 May 1964 Reed went to the bank and discovered that all Methodist assets had been frozen. By April 1964 Bishop was the last 'front- line' Methodist missionary in Upper Burma and the last European of any sort in Monywa.
Everyone suffered some pain when Burma lurched from past into present, and the prize was plucked from old sparring partners. Democracy is the most potent issue in modern Myanmar. Many Burmans and Western liberals regard democratisation as the prerequisite for development. The survival of the Methodist Church in Buddhist Upper Burma is little short of a miracle. There were only slightly fewer members in the Mandalay District in 2006 than there were in 1900. After 1966 it became impossible for the Church to proselytise, and it has survived only by retaining existing members. Missionary voices rarely challenged government policies either in colonial times or in Independent Burma. Maitrii Aung-Thwin defines Burma's past, present and future as a complicated potion of personalities, intellectual influences, culture and political forms. Charney is right to identify Buddhist monks as the custodians of 'Burmese tradition and the core of Burmese intellectual life'.
children, juvenile delinquency and cruelty to children which eventually
led to the introduction of crucial reforms. This chapter examines the two
directly opposing views of PO Societies which emerged in the second
half of the nineteenth century. At one end of the spectrum of opinion
were Archbishop Cullen and Margaret Aylward who investigated the
charity on the grounds of suspected proselytism while at the other were
social reformers who regarded the POS boarding-out scheme as an ideal
child welfare model worthy of imitation.
Missionary work in
and fear of the potential of the state
and of modernity. It was believed that whoever controlled welfare, or at
least whoever influenced welfare policy, controlled Ireland’s moral and spiritual future. In this respect, Catholicism, owing as much to its preponderance as to its war strategy, was dominant by the mid–1940s, but the previous decades were crucial.
Poor Irish mothers: active agents or charity cases?
The nineteenth-century legacy of the fear of proselytism lent itself comfortably to the growing conviction that the moral integrity of the country depended on
foregrounds broader political, scientific, racial and
military ideologies that mobilised the hills into an interconnected
vision of imperial control. Once arrived, the work of the first
generation of missionaries is explored in the third section of the book
in relation to language translation, education, proselytism and
negotiation with native polity. It is here too that crises of authority
in the mission are
, proselytism and the operation of such public institutions as the workhouse
system. They concluded that significant numbers of the abandoned children living on the streets were from Catholic backgrounds, that they had
no idea of the exact numbers involved or the extent of parental neglect
and that the workings of the courts, prisons and workhouses (despite
what was described as ‘the considerate and fair treatment of the Guardians’) meant many were lost to the faith. The priests of the diocese were
contacted, and at a meeting in May 1886 it was concluded on the basis of
The university campaign
The issue of university education in Ireland was a constant source of
grievance for the bishops. The university system in Ireland was ‘at the
centre of a network of proselytism and indiﬀerentism which the hierarchy had come to regard as the characteristic of the Protestant constitution
in Ireland’.1 The Roman Catholic Church demanded the same rights and
recognition which the state extended to Protestants in terms of statefunded, denominational university education. The demand for national
justice, however, masked other
The challenge of the sublime argues that the unprecedented visual inventiveness of the Romantic period in Britain could be seen as a response to theories of the sublime, more specifically to Edmund Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). While it is widely accepted that the Enquiry contributed to shaping the thematics of terror that became fashionable in British art from the 1770s, this book contends that its influence was of even greater consequence, paradoxically because of Burke’s conviction that the visual arts were incapable of conveying the sublime. His argument that the sublime was beyond the reach of painting, because of the mimetic nature of visual representation, directly or indirectly incited visual artists to explore not just new themes, but also new compositional strategies and even new or undeveloped pictorial and graphic media, such as the panorama, book illustrations and capricci. More significantly, it began to call into question mimetic representational models, causing artists to reflect about the presentation of the unpresentable and the inadequacy of their endeavours, and thus drawing attention to the process of artistic production itself, rather than the finished artwork. By revisiting the links between eighteenth-century aesthetic theory and visual practices, The challenge of the sublime establishes new interdisciplinary connections which address researchers in the fields of art history, cultural studies and aesthetics.
families in poverty and children placed in the myriad of institutions. The
investigation of the industrial schools revealed that Catholic fears of Protestant proselytism and the capitation fee system for industrial schools created
a situation in which ‘saving the souls’ of children was an active ‘spiritual’
and material endeavour. The continuation of this policy of institutionalisation by the State ignored the socio-economic reality for families, as institutionalisation was used as a poor alternative to welfare in the first instance,
and the promotion of a just and equal