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I. S. Robinson

celebration of his virtues as a prince ‘entirely outstanding among secular men’. Mindful of the negative judgement of Godfrey in Herman’s chronicle, Berthold wrote that ‘he became a new man by means of penitence so perfect … that there is no reason to doubt that he happily departed from here to citizenship of the court of highest heaven’. 85 The longest and most elaborate obituary in the chronicle is that

in Eleventh-century Germany
Trevor Dean

. 25 Jones, City-State , p. 159; W. M. Bowsky, ‘ Cives silvestres : Sylvan citizenship and the Sienese commune (1287–1355)’, Bollettino senese di storia patria , 24 (1965). 26 The chief financial office of the commune

in The towns of Italy in the later Middle Ages
Samuel K. Cohn, Jr

rights of citizenship, and citizens. To avoid harsh laws and taxes, magnates increasingly petitioned for and acquired popolani or commoner status, while merchants of popular status married into magnate families or took on the airs and violent life-style of magnates. 54 Yet on the eve of the Black Death, magnates were still able to exploit the divisions within the people, between the popolo minuto and the

in Popular protest in late-medieval Europe
Trevor Dean

. Item, the said notaries and officials are to go to the houses of each and every bride and groom at the time of a wedding, and diligently inquire into contraventions … Item, wishing to provide for the immoderate expenses of widows, which are made at the time of their widowhood, they decree that no widow … of any citizen, resident or inhabitant, who enjoys the benefits of citizenship, may, even at the time

in The towns of Italy in the later Middle Ages
I. S. Robinson

here to citizenship of the court of highest heaven. The most devout man, commending his spirit into the hands of Him by whose grace he drew breath, was caught up to heaven and died a joyful death. He was finally buried with appropriate funeral solemnities in Verdun, where he had also died, on 24 December: 157 there may he rest in peace. 1070. The king spent Christmas [25

in Eleventh-century Germany
Jews as Europeans in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
John Edwards

bathhouse. In a narrower sense, the cahal was the council of elders and rabbis, who provided administration and justice. They ran their own courts, they apportioned the state poll-tax and levied their own dues and taxes. They decided whether or not to confer the chazaka , citizenship, on newcomers, essential if they were to be accepted into the community

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600