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Brian Heffernan

Commandment caused on its relationship with the freedom fighters. As has been seen in the Introduction, competition between elites over the power to define and lead the national community was very common in Europe at this time, having replaced 246 EPILOGUE the more traditional conflicts between church and state.19 This was also true for countries such as Ireland where national and confessional identities overlapped in a ‘symbiotic’ manner.20 This symbiosis did not happen automatically: unity had to be forged. The Irish War of Independence saw the self-­assertion of a

in Freedom and the Fifth Commandment
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Sarah Glynn

strike at its roots. That ‘race’ is a social construct is now widely accepted, but not enough attention is given to how the racialisation process worked and continues to work and, importantly, whose interests it serves. The re-emergence of a potent neoliberal capitalism has been facilitated by a weak and divided working-class movement. Central to this division is the tendency to pursue sectional interests in isolation, and often in competition, with each other. This has been actively encouraged by those in power – witness how governments try to set poorly paid

in Class, ethnicity and religion in the Bengali East End
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June Cooper

children from the late eighteenth century and continued to provide for orphans on a relatively small scale in the nineteenth. Margaret Aylward founded St Brigid’s Outdoor Orphanage, or boarding-out institution, in 1856.5 Religious competition generated greater interest in the welfare of orphans – the children of the church – who in the case of the Church of Ireland became symbols of strength, vitality and the future. Given the predominance of the institutionalisation of children, PO Societies’ support of the ‘family system’ differentiated it from public poor relief

in The Protestant Orphan Society and its social significance in Ireland, 1828–1940
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Reformation: reformulation, reiteration and reflection
Rosemary O’Day

with other disciplines were making an impact even upon those most wedded to modernism. When historians examine the development of the debate about the Reformation since 1980 they should do so not only by discussing the substance of the academic arguments but also against the backcloth of changes in the academy. There were now many more historians than there had been in, for example, the 1960s, but much reduced opportunities for securing positions, career advancement and funding. Competition was rife and it had its effect upon the nature of historical research and the

in The Debate on the English Reformation
Sarah Glynn

, where he came in 1970, Salique set up his own factory in Cannon Street Road making garment ‘shells’, which employed around a hundred people. His first attempt at trade union organisation was among his own workforce.29 Salique’s factory was relatively large, but in general the East End rag trade had tended to revert to pre-Second World War traditions of backroom workshops. Larger firms were being encouraged to move out of London and many manufacturers, faced with growing competition from abroad, depended for their survival on subcontracting and casualisation of an

in Class, ethnicity and religion in the Bengali East End
Refugee industrialists in the Manchester region
Bill Williams

into which Britain had been plunged by foreign competition and the Wall Street Crash.4 By spring 1936 this policy had been refined by the Ministry of Labour and the Home Office into a positive attempt to steer German industrialists seeking refuge into the areas of deepest depression: particularly into the districts designated by the Special Areas Act of 1934 for the creation of government-sponsored industrial estates (Tyneside, South Wales and the Clyde Valley of Scotland), but also into other parts of the country, including south Lancashire, in which unemployment

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
John Lever and Johan Fischer

inhumane to animals and causes unnecessary pain and suffering, it is in reality done not for animal rights purposes, but in order for the industry to kill more animals quicker so as to increase profits. (Abu Ibrahim, quoted in HMC 2012) It is this controversy about the effectiveness of stunning that has driven competition to define what is and is not ‘authentic halal’ over the last 15 years (Lever and Miele 2012), with the outsiders from HMC challenging the boundaries of HFA’s authority and their established practices (Elias and Scotson 2008). A number of HMC-​ licensed

in Religion, regulation, consumption
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John Privilege

and he began to excel in the fields of dogmatic theology and scripture to the extent that he was given classes in theology to teach. In 1865, Logue enrolled early in the Dunboyne course, a series of postgraduate classes requiring the submission of a treatise in theology in competition for a prize. In addition to this he was studying for ordination and had begun to feel under pressure. He told McGettigan in April 1865, ‘I feel my health rapidly giving way under the continued strain, being obliged to overwork myself during the day and in consequence passing [a] great

in Michael Logue and the Catholic Church in Ireland, 1879–1925
Capitalism, Communism and ‘planning for freedom’
John Carter Wood

form of extreme nationalism than as an economic theory, as the next chapter discusses.) Between mammon and Marx: the contexts of ‘planning for freedom’ Worshipping false gods: critiques of capitalism Critiques of ‘capitalism’, ‘ laissez-faire ’, ‘the present economic structure’, the ‘world-economic system’, ‘financial values’, the ‘profit motive’, ‘mammon-worship’ and ‘cut-throat competition’ recurred in the Oldham group. The pseudo-religious veneration of economic rationality was seen to encourage greed and exploitation. From its origins the CNL attacked

in This is your hour
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Global kosher and halal markets
John Lever and Johan Fischer

, diversity and power relations as well as ‘the bigger picture’, that is, competition between organisations and their relationship to the state and society at large. Kosher and halal regulation is premised on ways in which certifiers generate authority among individuals such as company representatives and participants in halal training. There exists a particular trade relation in the market for kosher and halal. Consumers buy commodities that ideally comply with certain religious standards, and the trader not only profits but also claims a measure of authority. Marking

in Religion, regulation, consumption