Working for the British in Calais 1916

war wounded. Still, even if Bramshott had become a reality, it did 120 War girls not fulfil McDougall’s dream of working with the British wounded in France, nor did it fit the bill as a way for the FANY to work in ambulance transport. Although she had been told repeatedly by the authorities that women had no place in such work, as we know, McDougall was not easily dissuaded by such rhetoric: they were FANY, not women. In August 1915 McDougall and Lillian Franklin visited the War Office and offered a proposal that the FANY take over hospital and driving tasks

in War girls
The Belgian convoy and Port à Binson Priory Hospital 1917

a ruling that any new units for any army in the British area of Calais had to be sanctioned by the British Adjutant-General.4 Irene Ward, long-time friend of the FANY, shared a story about how McDougall avoided this sanction that would have potentially prevented any agreement to work for the Belgians. It is a story uncorroborated by other reports and whether it actually happened this way is unclear; nonetheless, it is a story that illustrates the FANY legend and the representation of FANY personnel as 161 162 War girls independent, incorrigible and undaunted

in War girls
Grace Ashley-Smith in Belgium Autumn 1914

anger. “God forgive you for that, my girl”, he said.’1 Ashley-Smith’s response here as the first one to speak and the one to speak heedlessly illustrates her energy and impetuosity. Her near-rejoicing in the news of war also reflects her ambition and naïveté. Although she would lead the FANY in service to the Allies, the captain’s words were a foreboding of what was to come in this disastrous and bloody war. Since Ashley-Smith was desperate to return home and rejoin the FANY, on reaching Gibraltar she managed to get passage on another ship bound for England. This liner

in War girls
Abstract only
The French units and the convoy at St Omer 1917–18

Cotterets where they hoped to reconstitute 187 188 War girls and continue work. The journey, like their work in Amiens, was gruelling and relieved only by the compassion of the Scottish Women’s Hospital staff who were ‘kindness itself ’, taking in the FANY for several days and helping them rest until they got settled into new lodgings.9 Unfortunately these lodgings turned out to be a vacant pork butcher’s shop: a version of ‘settled’ not quite what they had in mind. A FANY in Unit 6 described the accommodations: We really were intensely uncomfortable. Chiefly owing to

in War girls
Abstract only
Female homosociality in L. T. Meade’s schoolgirl novels

4 Girls with ‘go’: female homosociality in L. T. Meade’s schoolgirl novels Whitney Standlee T he juvenile fiction written by the Irish novelist L. T. Meade (Elizabeth Thomasina Meade Toulmin Smith, 1844–1914) was extensive and diverse in both substance and reach. Sales records for her novels, a number of which continued to be reissued decades after their initial publication and which sold in the tens of thousands, confirm that her work appealed across temporal, geographical, religious, and even gendered boundaries.1 Evidence of her widespread popularity

in Irish women’s writing, 1878–1922
Girls from the Kinder transport in Southport, 1938–1940

12 The Harris House girls: girls from the Kindertransport in Southport, 1938–1940 On 6 December 1938, as it sought to define its remit, the MJRC was given to understand by members of the Livingstone family of Southport that a local committee there had obtained premises at 27 Argyle Road, in a fashionable residential district near the town centre, at a rental of £900 for four years, which it proposed to convert into a hostel for twelve children. Approval had been obtained from Woburn House and the committee now sought the imprimatur of the MJRC, of which it

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
The Boom of 1960s–70s Erotic Cinema and the Policing of Young Female Subjects in Japanese sukeban Films

The purpose of this article is to analyse the ambivalent politics of looking and discourses of gender, class and sexuality in a variety of 1960s–70s Japanese studio-made exploitation films, known as sukeban films. It first contextualises their production within a transnational and domestic shift emphasising sex and violence in film and popular culture. The article then highlights instances where the visual, narrative and discursive articulation of non-conforming femininities flips the gendered power balance, as in the sketches that satirise men’s sexual fetishes for girls. In conclusion, it suggests to understand the filmic construction of young women’s agency, and their bodily and sexual performance, in terms of a recurring modus operandi of Japanese media that ambivalently panders to and co-constitutes youth phenomena.

Film Studies

106 6 Women and girls in danger From the mid-sixteenth century, some moral campaigners began to set up rescue institutions in the form of conservatories rather than convents. These were intended to be halfway houses and boarding schools, places of transition and safe keeping. They were not designed to be places of penance, but were aimed at reconciling rather than punishing, at preventing sins rather than atoning for them, at providing refuges where women in difficulties could consider their next moves. The goals of these institutions were socially

in Tolerance, Regulation and Rescue

11 Plague, patriarchy and ‘girl power’ Jane Humphries Introduction The inspiration for this chapter comes from an earlier contribution, written with Jill Rubery in 1984, which surveyed theories of social reproduction and its relationship to the economy. We argued that the family, notwithstanding its extensive responsibilities for reproducing, training and socialising future workers, had not been established as an interesting, central and dynamic variable for ­economic analysis (Humphries and Rubery, 1984). Instead, across the whole spectrum of theoretical

in Making work more equal

1 Tomboys, crushes and the construction of adolescent lesbian identities Reflecting on the sexual culture at Colston’s Girls School in Bristol in the 1940s, Diana Chapman gave the following account of her own sexual awakening: And it was quite the thing there in some weird way, for all the girls to be in love with each other, at least in love with the senior girls and the staff. It wasn’t thought peculiar, and when I was twelve I think I was standing on the edge of a – or walking along the edge of a swimming pool and there was a tall dark and handsome girl

in Tomboys and bachelor girls