Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.
This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.
and there have been countless other millions of slaves forcibly migrated to serve
The genesis of international mass migration
distant masters and mistresses (within and beyond Africa).6 They are a large part
of the wide narrative of internationalmigration and slave migrations which
continue to this day. European convicts were also shipped overseas from the
sixteenth to the late nineteenth century. From the British Isles alone about
60,000 were sent to the American colonies before 1776; and after American
Independence 160,000 British and Irish convicts
Irish diaspora studies and women: theories, concepts and new perspectives
D. A. J. MacPherson and Mary J. Hickman
4 While all the contributors in this volume engage with theoretical discussions of the
term ‘diaspora’, the aim of this book is not to provide an overarching, agreed definition of the term. For a useful recent survey of different approaches to use of the
term, see K. Tölölyan, ‘Diaspora studies: past, present and promise’, Working Paper
55, April 2012, Oxford Diasporas Programme (Oxford: InternationalMigration
Institute, University of Oxford, 2012), available at www.imi.ox.ac.uk/pdfs/imiworking-papers/wp-55-2012-diaspora-studies-past-present-and-promise, accessed
:1 (2011), 9–44.
11 R. C. Smith, ‘Migrant membership as an instituted process: migration, the state and
the extra-territorial conduct of Mexican politics’, InternationalMigration Review, 37:2
(2003), 297–343; R. Bauböck, Transnational Citizenship: Membership and Rights in
InternationalMigration (Aldershot: Edward Elgar, 1994).
12 B. Gray, Women and the Irish Diaspora (London: Routledge, 2004).
13 D. L. Eng, ‘Out here and over there: queerness and diaspora in Asian American
Studies’, Social Text, 52/53 (1997), 31–52; E. A. Povinelli and G. Chauncey (1999)
enumerating the typologies of emigration brings some primitive order to the
task, even if some of the proportions of the categories cannot be established. It
is clear that most British, and indeed most international, migration has been
essentially economic migration.
The historical ‘campsites’ employed in this book are located across the British
Isles, in radically different geographical and social circumstances. Each of them
produced internal and external migrants in the decades before 1850, in varied
proportions and timetables, but all of them
The limits of the EU’s external dimension of migration in Africa
Tine Van Criekinge
African governments to engage in regional migration dialogue has
been driven by the recognition that prospects for successful regional
integration are strongly linked to both intra-regional and internationalmigration dynamics. As such, ECOWAS has tended to focus on the linkages between migration, development and regional integration (Gnisci,
Although there are some differences in the various emerging agendas
on the continent, some common factors characterise the African position
on migration. Firstly, the role of EU/European influence in the formulation of
people became naturalised US citizens between 2009 and 2011 alone
(Lee 2012). Using these two different criteria in one country could lead
to significantly different counts of international migrants. As a result,
measures of migrant stock are not always directly comparable. They
also are unlikely to include irregular migrants (Jandl 2012), and as a
result are inevitably underestimated.
Measures of migrant stock focus on internationalmigration: on
people who cross national borders. Sometimes this occurs not because
people move, but because borders change. A recent
controls, there would be no such thing as internationalmigration. It therefore makes sense that we should seek to understand how states go about
making their migration policies – or the walls that states build and the
small doors that they open in them (Zolberg 1989).
The perception of the various forms of internationalmigration as
either positive in terms of economic benefits, or bad in terms of allocation of scarce public goods, is shaped by institutions and organisations
in receiving states (Geddes 2003: 2–3). Policies designate various forms
of migration as ‘wanted
of Canada. Available online at
pdf. Accessed 17 December 2011.
Department of Foreign Affairs (2010) Report on the Farmleigh Global Irish
Economic Forum. Dublin: Department of Foreign Affairs.
Dewind, J. and J. Holdaway (eds) (2008) Migration and Development Within
and Across Borders: Research and Policy Perspectives on Internal and
InternationalMigration. Geneva: IMO.
Faist, T. (2008) ‘Migrants as transnational development agents: an inquiry
into the newest round of the migration