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concluded, to some 118,500 people. As he observed, this was ‘not as high as from the famous regions of Italy’. But, he added, ‘it must be remembered that mass emigration from Italy lasted not much more than twenty years’.2 By contrast, the Cornish emigration was counted in decades. Nor were the Cornish statistics to be taken lightly. Between 1861 and 1900, 44.8 per cent of the Cornish male population aged fifteen to twenty-four left for destinations abroad, with a further 29.7 per cent departing for other counties. Over the same period and in the same group, 26.2 per cent

in British and Irish diasporas
Open Access (free)

-way relationship between the sending society and the outflow. Specifically, it seeks to ascertain and compare how the Irish 1 Roddy_Population_Printer.indd 1 15/09/2014 11:47 Introduction Catholic, Presbyterian and Anglican churches responded to sustained emigration from their congregations during the nineteenth century, and in turn how they were affected by it, and, just as importantly, how they believed themselves to be affected by it. The book therefore knits together two of the most significant themes in the social and cultural history of modern Ireland – mass emigration

in Population, providence and empire

circumstances, some clearly more desperate than others, some with a determination to improve or rescue the basic conditions of their lives and setting up for the next generation – emigration undertaken to avoid relative and absolute decline in status. But, even so, only a small proportion of such people actually emigrated. Within the British and European accounts of mass emigration there has been every variety of motivation. Political exile can be found in all decades; evictions caused people to depart; social and religious utopianism was recurrent; escaping military service

in The genesis of international mass migration

is, however, a recurring complaint that the British always regard themselves as special, even unique, or at least sui generis – that they are introverted and insular in many things including their historical sense. The present account is no exception, since it pursues the running claim that the original mass emigration in the modern mould was indeed British, and was a corollary of its agrarian and demographic transformations. Moreover each dimension had very long roots – like industrialisation itself. At issue is the depth of such roots and their particularity. It

in The genesis of international mass migration
‘The Ballroom of Romance’

the grease in his hair. Even de Valera was well slicked down.7 The reminder here of these ‘strong men’ of an earlier generation suggests one way to read Trevor’s protagonists; mired in mid-century stagnation they are a world away from these heroes of the War of Independence. Post-Civil War disillusion, economic failure and mass emigration had a profoundly negative impact on their generation. Trevor’s ballroom, the word itself recalling the elegance of another age, may be understood thus as a place of possibility, an imaginative space outside the dominant culture

in William Trevor

a dominant role for most of the eighteenth century. The key change was the transition from indenture to free mass emigration late in the eighteenth century and ultimately the termination of slavery in the following century. 92 The genesis of international mass migration There was clearly a major upsurge in immigration at the end of the eighteenth century and by the mid-nineteenth century various new patterns had emerged in British emigration. In the decades 1840 to 1914, 60 per cent of emigrants were male and now mostly urbanites. They were increasingly

in The genesis of international mass migration
Abstract only

-step towards the catastrophe of the 1840s and mass emigration. They dominate the story of Ireland, each part explaining the other. The first disentanglement of the issues must recognise that emigration pre-dated and post-dated the Great Famine and that the prior population explosion engulfed every aspect of the Irish predicament. Population in perspective Scarcity and congestion were not necessarily the usual condition of Ireland. In the seventeenth century, land in Ireland was abundant and tenancies easy to obtain. Even in the early eighteenth century ‘there was a general

in The genesis of international mass migration

people were migrating from all across the British Isles, but the Irish were moving outwards faster. By the 1830s, Ireland was already becoming a primary supplier of emigrants to the great and insatiable needs of the United States. The higher propensity of the Irish to emigrate was already apparent: the Irish (mainly from the north) had been departing for more than a century, but the scale was now rapidly expanded and reached new levels of exodus in the decades before, during and after the Great Famine of 1846–51. This was the emergence of mass emigration of a new

in The genesis of international mass migration
Abstract only

the population; externally, Cuba was now more isolated than ever, with no exogenous solutions being apparent. After years of severe austerity, mass emigration and social fragmentation, however, it was not external models, but the local, that provided a new definition of the collective. Thus, both organically and, eventually, as a result of state policy recognising the importance of this local level of activity, the national collective was reconfigured once again and given extra impetus with the Batalla de Ideas. This new emphasis on the national – meaning local and

in Literary culture in Cuba

correspondence in which Cullen emphasised the benefits of mass emigration for expanding the influence of the Church in the United States. Cullen used his influence to keep this Irish Catholic diaspora loyal to Rome.6 The ideological enemy in particular was militant Fenian nationalism. Matthew Kelly (in ‘Providence, Revolution and the Conditional Defence of the Union: Paul Cullen and the Fenians’) quotes an 1861 pastoral letter which attacked secret societies. Their machinations, under the pretence of promoting human liberty, were held responsible for promoting drunkenness, the

in Irish adventures in nation-building