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West Wales and Swaledale and the sequences of migration
Eric Richards

local and social origins.1 Rural west Wales was especially prominent in the emigration account; it also vividly manifested some of the classic conditions making for mobility. According to Welsh historian, Geraint Jenkins, by the late eighteenth century ‘many landed estates had fallen into the hands of landlords who, if they were not already English, simply adopted metropolitan values and distanced themselves from the 166 The genesis of international mass migration native culture and the tongue spoken by the vast majority’. There was a widening social distance

in The genesis of international mass migration
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The Scottish Highlands
Eric Richards

, even onto emigrant ships. The case has all the advantages of simplicity which have fuelled recrimination and revulsion ever since – a passion directed against landlords, sheep farmers, factors, and the governing classes (conventionally London-based and English). Karl Marx naturally fell upon the Highlands as the perfect instance of landlord capitalistic expropriation.2 194 The genesis of international mass migration The great export staple of the Highlands became pastoral production, cattle and then sheep for the southern markets. Over many decades this created

in The genesis of international mass migration
Eric Richards

and early Victorian times. It reflected the immense difficulty of fathoming the trajectory and dangers of population growth in the age of industrialisation and the commercialisation of agriculture. This common perplexity was at the centre of the very serious population puzzles that are encountered by modernising societies past and present. 250 The genesis of international mass migration Emigration featured in Malthus’ thinking but in a relatively marginal role in the understanding of population dynamics. Moreover his interest in emigration was primarily

in The genesis of international mass migration
Abstract only
Eric Richards

, novelists and every other category of Irish life. Nevertheless, the statistical reality is that most Irish emigrants were unequivocally rural people, many of them very poor. The Irish rose to the top of the emigration league table in the 1830s, following a clear build-up of emigration in the previous decade: it was as though emigration had become democratised and spread outwards into the population at large. 208 The genesis of international mass migration The pre-eminence of the Irish as emigrants lasted until about 1900. The rise and the fall of their ranking in the

in The genesis of international mass migration
Eric Richards

and mobility was restricted: in the late seventeenth century there was a decreasing frequency of movement, fewer vagrants, and the Laws of Settlement were more thoroughly codified. A regime of stagnant or falling population tended to hold the community in statu quo, mobility limited and controlled. Hence the picture emerges of a pre-industrial population generally held back in times of economic and demographic recession. In the long 40 The genesis of international mass migration history of population trends, these phases of demographic recession were

in The genesis of international mass migration
Eric Richards

monopolies and inflated prices; tithes were high on the list of complaints. At the end of the French Wars all financial confidence evaporated: banks were foreclosing, poor rates mounting and farmers were discharging their employees. After the expansion of wartime there was a rapid consolidation and rationalisation of farms: bankruptcies, forced 56 The genesis of international mass migration sales, and dispossession followed in rapid succession. These were hard times for all in rural Sussex – but most of all for the agricultural labourers whose numbers rose as

in The genesis of international mass migration
Eric Richards

six.4 Less well recorded, and worse in its death rates than its mid-nineteenthcentury successor, 1741 ranks as one of the most devastating of the pre-industrial mortality crises. Such recurrent peaks of mortality were already in permanent decline on the mainland of the British Isles. In Ireland (and in some parts of the West Highlands and Islands of Scotland) such crises continued to recur into the next century. 138 The genesis of international mass migration The famine of 1741 in County Cork was appalling but recovery was rapid and associated with the adoption

in The genesis of international mass migration
Abstract only
Eric Richards

geographer R.H. Kinvig observed that emigration was a central factor in the Manx experience, partly because little industrial development had occurred and the rural sector was not absorbing the population increases: ‘Without urban industry to make up for the fall in agricultural employment, the Isle of Man was largely saved by the highly successful tourist industry’ (in the early twentieth century). By then the proportion of the population on the land had greatly decreased.5 22 The genesis of international mass migration The long-run features of the Island’s economy

in The genesis of international mass migration
Polish migrants in the Irish labour market
Torben Krings, Elaine Moriarty, James Wickham, Alicja Bobek and Justyna Salamońska

3 From ‘boom to bust’: Polish migrants in the Irish labour market This chapter locates mass migration from Poland in the broader Irish labour market context at the beginning of the twenty-first century. It shows how an unprecedented economic boom in conjunction with an open labour market policy in 2004 triggered large-scale migration from Poland and elsewhere. We first outline how in the later boom years, Ireland had a goldrush labour market in which an apparently infinite demand for labour was met by an apparently infinite supply of labour. We then demonstrate

in New mobilities in Europe
Nigel Grizzard

married women to shave their heads and wear a sheitel [wig] and for Jews to stay away from dance halls and theatres. In retrospect, the resolutions passed by the rabbis were not surprising; they show more that among the Jewish community the old practices of Eastern Europe were being discarded. Young Jews were taking to enjoy themselves in social and leisure pursuits provided by the wider community. Leeds Jews were moving ‘out of the ghetto’ both physically and emotionally. The great mass migration of East European Jews West had started in

in Leeds and its Jewish Community