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Bildt, Europe and neutrality in the post-Cold War era
Christine Agius

At the turn of the 1990s, domestic and external changes would make a decisive impact on Swedish identity and neutrality. Carl Bildt's non-socialist coalition broke the hegemonic position of the Social Democratic Party, instigating a new approach to the Swedish Model, Europe, and neutrality. Bildt wanted to steer Sweden away from the past towards a European identity where neutrality had no place. An equally powerful challenge came from the external realm, where the collapse of bipolarity appeared to make neutrality obsolete. The meaning of security expanded beyond traditional definitions that focused on the state. The 1990s was a significant period for neutrality per se as many neutral states struggled to understand their place in the new post-Cold War world. For Bildt, neutrality was no longer an appropriate way to describe Swedish security policy.

in The social construction of Swedish neutrality
Tracing the origins of Swedish neutrality, 1814–1945
Christine Agius

Exploring the advent of Swedish neutrality via a constructivist analysis, this chapter re-examines the ‘realpolitik’ explanation of its origins. It focuses on Sweden's demise as a great power in the region and the ensuing (conflictual) debates about identity that became tied to neutrality, before being adopted as part of the platform of the Social Democratic Party which considered neutrality an important feature of its idea of the folkhem(‘People's Home). Yet during the period covered in this chapter, neutrality was unevenly practiced, ranging from passivity to interwar activism in the League of Nations, and culminating in a widely-criticised ‘pendulum policy’ during the Second World War, which saw it favour first Nazi Germany and then the Allied forces. Sweden was seen as an isolationist, self-interested actor, morally dubious and profiting from war. This assessment was to have a lasting impact on Swedish identity and the future of its neutrality policy.

in The social construction of Swedish neutrality

Identity is contingent and dynamic, constituting and reconstituting subjects with political effects. This book explores the implications of Protestant and 'British' incursions for the development of Irish Catholic identity as preserved in Irish language texts from the early modern period until the end of Stuart pretensions. Questions of citizenship, belonging, migration, conflict, security, peace and subjectivity are examined through social construction, post-colonialism, and gendered lenses from an interdisciplinary perspective. The book explains the issue of cultural Catholicism in the later middle ages, by way of devotional cults and practices. It examines Catholic unionism vis-a-vis Victorian politics, military and imperial service, the crown, and the position of the Catholic Church with relation to the structures of the state in Ireland. In particular the North American experience and especially the importance of the USA for consolidating a particular interpretation of Irish Catholic nationalist identity, is explored. Children studied in English Catholic public schools like Stonyhurst and Downside where the establishment Irish Catholics and rising mercantile classes sought to have the characteristics of the Catholic gentleman instilled in their progeny. The book sets out to detect the voices of those Catholic women who managed to make themselves heard by a wider audience than family and friends in Ireland in the years between the Act of Union of 1800 and independence/partition. It considers what devotional interests both Gaelic Irish and Anglo-Norman actually shared in common as part of a wider late medieval Catholic culture.

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Problems of definition and historiography
Irina Metzler

and developmental patterns will have been in existence in the Middle Ages. The genetic and physiological causes of ID will have changed little, historically, thus ID cannot simply be dismissed as a purely ‘modern disorder’. Social constructionism and ID At this point it is apposite to briefly introduce a philosophical critique, primarily expounded by Hacking, of the preponderance in Western academia to claim that nigh on everything, whether people, objects or ideas, is socially constructed. The question of social

in Fools and idiots?
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Landscape and the lost republic
Nicholas Allen

subjective suffering is added with Moran’s marriage to Rose, a match that serves only to show how his self-imprisonment can be extended to others. The critical focus on Amongst Women has concentrated on the social construction of the novel and its implications for mid-twentieth-century Irish society.8 Sampson takes up this theme in part through McGahern’s reference to the living stream,9 which is the novelist’s gesture towards a key sequence in Yeats’s meditation on rebellion, ‘Easter, 1916’: ‘Hearts with one purpose alone / Through summer and winter seem / Enchanted to a

in John McGahern
Kosovo prior to 1999
Naomi Head

conflict and instead focuses on the political and social construction of ethnic tension. The second section identifies a number of key processes and actors which contributed to the marginalisation of Kosovo between 1989–98 and thus to the development of violent conflict. 4 These processes include: the European Community Conference on Yugoslavia in 1991 ; the Badinter Arbitration Commission set

in Justifying violence
Derek Robbins

4 Maurice Merleau-Ponty, 1908–61 This chapter focuses on the career and work of Merleau-Ponty. He remained in France for the whole of his life, enduringly initiated into the French intellectual tradition. During the 1930s he worked with Gurwitsch and was also responsible for publicizing some of the late work of Husserl which, during the war, was held in archives in Louvain. He was involved, with Sartre, in attempting to conceptualize post-war social construction. He tried to integrate his phenomenological thinking with political engagement in a way which had

in The Bourdieu paradigm
Anthony Gristwood

My aim in this chapter is to explore some issues concerning social memory, commemoration, and the social construction of contemporary identities in the urban arena. By examining the production and iconography of two exhibitionary events in twentieth-century Seville, I want to illuminate the complex connections between debates about the location of Spanish culture, definitions of ‘Spanishness’ and the recasting of the legacy of Spanish imperialism. As a key site within Spanish national mythology and imperial

in Imperial cities
Reflections on cricket, culture and meaning
Brian Stoddart

The cultural landscape of cricket alone signifies the game’s centrality in both imperial and post-colonial social construction. While there has been much discussion about who was included in playing the game, for example, it is as important to note those excluded – for a long time that involved such diverse groups as women in most areas, working-class blacks in the

in The imperial game
Towards a phenomenology of the ‘visible’ in criminal justice
Matthew R. Draper and David Polizzi

the victim in this case. Given that each of these photographs brought with them a very specific and intended semiotic process, it was essential that this narrative not be ‘derailed’ by the empathic construction of Martin by the jury. What this process of social construction reveals is its underlying phenomenology as this relates to the perpetuation of the narrative of anti-​black racism. Zimmerman’s defence counsel was ultimately successful in his strategy for the simple reason that the phenomenology of anti-​black racism was able to overwrite the possibility of any

in Law in popular belief