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Rereading internment

perceived. Yet, in documenting their subversive behaviour, these narratives have also added to the aura of internment’s failure without accounting for the newer mechanics it sought to achieve. Emphasis needs to be shifted towards the military imperatives behind the operation: its new models of counter-­insurgency and their impact upon future military initiatives in the North. Rather than in the classic texts of i­ nternment – ­Adams’s Cage Eleven (1990) or Morrison’s West Belfast (1989) – it is through more marginal ­accounts – ­John McGuffin’s The Guineapigs (1974

in Northern Ireland and the politics of boredom
Abstract only
FANY service after the Armistice 1918–19

: as an independent organization they made their own rules and gave women opportunities for training, leadership, fun and adventure; however, once established they worked within the system and did ‘play the game all through’. Unfortunately this game also included a return to more traditional gender relations when the war was over. In this way the FANY were groundbreaking in challenging the regulatory norms of gender and by living unconventional lives and doing work often coded as masculine. Through these subversive behaviours they were able to develop feminine

in War girls
Race, culture and power in the Trinidad ‘Carnival Queen’ beauty competition, 1946–59

in kalinda as fighters has also been written out of Carnival history.23 Meanwhile the Carnival performance of the ‘respectable’ classes was largely transferred behind doors. The wealthy, conspicuous by their absence from street masking, at least by day, poured scorn on Carnival through the press, creating a gendered discourse of degeneration and dis­ order around the black jamette Carnival. They reserved particular ire and disapprobation for the behaviour of poor women at Carnival. Women’s deliberately subversive behaviour became, according to the Catholicoriented

in Imagining Caribbean womanhood
Open Access (free)
La colonie Française

engaged in subversive activities. This might have sounded a severe sanction, but was yet again a fudge. Not only did repatriation remain a virtual impossibility in 1941 (witness the problems with the French consular staff later that year), but few Frenchmen were likely to be caught engaging in subversive behaviour, especially given the way in which the colony remained a community apart. Nor was there government consensus over the issue. The Ministry of Labour feared Germany would exploit any gesture towards conscription for propaganda purposes.265 After all, it was not

in The forgotten French