Search results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 21 items for :

  • "twentieth century" x
  • Economics and Business x
Clear All

twentieth century. This view held that society could be designed and shaped according to rational, scientific criteria by experts and elites, usually with the backing of the state.7 It is the ideology that underpins an econocracy. Instead, authority and power must start with the broader citizenry and be delegated to particular experts on the basis of an explicit agreement. The public retain oversight and control through a parliament or some other method, have an ongoing critical relationship with those with delegated authority, and have the real option to recall that

in The econocracy

for long periods. This narrative tends to portray the 1920s as the watershed moment when the ‘nineteenth century “producer ethic”  –​an ethos of restraint, thrift, and work, arising from conditions of scarcity  –​was surpassed by a twentieth century “consumer ethic” that took abundance for granted and found expression in lifestyles of release, therapeutic indulgence, and fun’ (Calder, 2013:357). Working alongside this ‘myth of lost economic virtue’, as mentioned in the previous section and typified by the work of Galbraith, Tucker and Bell who insist on a slide from

in A brief history of thrift
The resurgence of Route 128 in Massachusetts

9 Open systems and regional innovation: the resurgence of Route 128 in Massachusetts 1 Michael H. Best Introduction The Boston area has the highest concentration of colleges and universities, research institutes and hospitals of any place in the world. The plethora of graduate research programmes suggested that the industrial future of Massachusetts was secure in the emerging knowledge economy of the late twentieth century. However, the research intensity of the region has not insulated the state from the vicissitudes of the business cycle. For example, after

in Market relations and the competitive process

, narrow style of modelling, economics became a consolidated formal framework. As the economist Mark Blaug has put it, economists developed an ‘absolute preference for the form of an economic argument over its content’.30 Most economists spoke a common language and used a common set of tools. Those who didn’t were increasingly pushed to the fringes. The cleansing of economics departments31 The development of economics in the early twentieth century led to a neoclassical ‘mainstream’ developing, but the situation that students of economics face now – where they are only

in The econocracy

regulation and the non-formal norms of competition occurring in relatively stable, often quite long-term, market formations. To illustrate this multi-dimensionality, and the process of de-institution and re-institution of different forms of competition, discussion now turns to the effects of the changes in the UK food retailing market. UK supermarkets and changing forms of competition19 During the course of the twentieth century, UK multiple retailers have grown from having roughly ten per cent of the market share of the food market to over 85 per cent. In a first phase

in Market relations and the competitive process
Abstract only
Puritans, Quakers and Methodists

.8 However, for most, frugality was not the focus, and indeed only really reoccurred in the early twentieth century when concerns were voiced at the annual meeting in London about the levels of consumption in modern life (Michaelis, 2008:101). Since then, Quaker thrift has often been oriented around ethical consumption and responsible ecological behaviour, and is often these beliefs that the ‘testimony of simplicity’ taps into today. Coleman and Collins found Quaker members to be familiar with parts of Quaker Faith and Practice such as ‘Try to live simply. A

in A brief history of thrift

member states in accepting the new Treaty showed that changes to the Treaties were a painful process that produced significant resistance. The President of the Com­mission, José Manuel Barroso, articulating the climate of the first decade of the new century in November 2004, stressed that he would not seek to change the existing situation, but to consolidate it, so that the institutional framework would function better. Reform fatigue prevailed in the Union, contrary to the activism of the last decade of the twentieth century. There were various reasons for this. The

in The European debt crisis

1 On the complexities and limits of market organisation Richard R. Nelson Introduction The close of the twentieth century saw a virtual canonisation of markets as the best, indeed the only really effective, way to govern an economic system. The market organisation being canonised was simple and pure, along the lines of the standard textbook model in economics. For-profit firms are the vehicle of production and provision. Given what suppliers offer, free choice on the part of customers, who decide on the basis of their own knowledge and preferences where to spend

in Market relations and the competitive process

politics and society after the dead end of the twentieth century when, as we have seen, the idea of the economy came to be seen as separate from the rest of society. In a broader sense, ideas from different economic perspectives pose a deep challenge to the technocrat’s ability to measure, forecast and fine-tune the economy. Evolutionary economics conceptualises the economy as a complex system with many interdependent parts whose behaviour is hard to predict.64 Post-Keynesian economics Beyond neoclassical economics  85 stresses the ‘radical uncertainty’ of the future

in The econocracy

thought process. Notes 1 For further material on the late twentieth-century business scene, see Wilson, British Business History, pp. 234–6. 2 See J.F. Wilson (2000), Ferranti. A History. Vol. 1. Building a Family Business, 1882–1975, Carnegie Publishing, pp. 514–22. 3 FBM 10835, 24 Sept 1980. 4 J.F. Wilson (2007), Ferranti. A History. Vol. 2. From Family Firm to Multinatonal, 1975–1987, Crucible Books, pp. 352–3. 5 FBM 9, 26 March 1985. 6 See Vol. 2, pp. 94–106. 7 Ferranti News, June 1982. 8 Vol. 2, Chs 5–7. 9 Vol. 1, pp. 169–71. 10 See Vol. 1, pp. 301–3 and 337, for

in Ferranti: A History