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WORKING CLASS PRINT.indd 1 03/05/2012 10:31 2 The working class in mid-twentieth-century England ran a small business in the centre of town, said: ‘I fail to see why they should demolish these sorts of places . . . to build a car park.’5 The vociferousness of working class complainants was particularly marked, as Box recorded: Working class people who don’t like being turned out of their houses to move into ones further out of town, and who object to high rents [are] very apt to make very long speeches about this. . . . Noticed a much bigger difference between

in The working class in mid-twentieth-century England
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The relationship between Scotland and the British Empire in the twentieth century was both wide-ranging and highly complex. In the opening year of the century, the Scottish economy was still strongly connected with imperial infrastructures (like railways, engineering, construction and shipping), and colonial trade and investment. The industrial profile of Glasgow was securing a

in Scotland, empire and decolonisation in the twentieth century
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Chapter 6 Conclusion Looking back on the twentieth century as a whole and returning to some of the themes I raised in the introduction, we can begin to get a sense of what was distinctive about the middle years of the century. It is clear that for most of the period, certainly from c.1934 to c.1973, living standards for those in work increased significantly.1 This was underpinned by rising real earnings, which increased by nearly half between 1948 and 1965, with particularly strong growth rates from 1954.2 As the era of ‘full’ employment continued, overtime

in The working class in mid-twentieth-century England
Scottish emigration in the twentieth century

Scottish emigrants in the eight decades after the First World War matched the numbers who had left between 1815 and 1914. But the contours of intercontinental migration were significantly redrawn during the twentieth century as a consequence of two world wars, ongoing developments in communications technology, and the phenomenon of globalisation, with significant implications for

in Scotland, empire and decolonisation in the twentieth century
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Family, memory and modernity

Chapter 5 Home: family, memory and modernity The middle years of the twentieth century have frequently been presented as a period in which a particular version of modern, largely suburban domesticity achieved hegemony in English life. In the inter-war period, for example, the growth of suburbia in the form of both owner-occupied ‘Tudorbethan’ and municipal neo-Georgian seemed to offer middle and working class alike a modern, mass-produced version of the cottage lifestyle in almost infinitely variegated pastiches of vernacular architecture.1 While the Second

in The working class in mid-twentieth-century England
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The social geography of working class housing

Chapter 3 Place: the social geography of working class housing This chapter focuses on the twin modernising forces which reshaped working class neighbourhoods in the period between the 1920s and the mid-1970s: slum clearance and council housing. In terms of design, layout, household space and amenities the suburban council estates of the mid-twentieth century were a vast improvement on the kind of housing occupied by working class families in the pre-First World War period. Yet suburbanisation, arguably, came at a cost. During the 1950s and 1960s sociologists

in The working class in mid-twentieth-century England

prudent to distinguish Scotland from Ireland. From the founding of the Union to the middle decades of the twentieth century, most Scots have been enthusiastic participants in the empire. In her seminal account of the origins of modern Britain, Linda Colley argued that ‘trade and Empire, war and military service’ were two bases of an emerging British identity in the 1707–1837 era

in Scotland, empire and decolonisation in the twentieth century
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People Think about Public Houses (1950), table 6; Market and Opinion Research International, Public Attitudes to Pubs and Leisure, June, 1984, p. 81. Gutzke_WomenDrinking.indd 279 22/11/2013 11:02 280 Women drinking out in Britain Women’s drinking habits were revolutionized in the last quarter of the twentieth century, creating an entirely new subculture of drinking (Table 7).5 As then Publican editor Caroline Nodder recalled about the mid-1970s, ‘There were no alcopops. No gastropubs. No table service. No health and safety risk assessments. No lager louts. No

in Women drinking out in Britain since the early twentieth century
Women and youth across a century of censure

Sexuality (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985), pp. 29–30. 60 Lynne Amy Amidon, ‘“Ladies in Blue”: Feminism and Policing in Britain in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries’ (Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Binghamton, 1986), ch. 4; Paul Ferris, Sex and the British: A TwentiethCentury History (London: Michael Joseph, 1993), ch. 4. For a discussion of breweries’ delivery of beer to working-class neighbourhoods in Edwardian England, see David W. Gutzke, Protecting the Pub: Brewers and Publicans against Temperance (Woodbridge; Royal

in Women drinking out in Britain since the early twentieth century

2 The ‘Big State’ versus the ‘Big Society’ in twentieth-century Britain Pat Thane Recent political discourse, in particular references to the ‘Big Society’, has drawn attention, including that of historians, to the role of voluntary action in British society over the past century or so. ‘Big Society’ rhetoric, insofar as it is clear about anything, seems to suggest that the growth of a substantial welfare state apparatus over the past century, especially since 1945, and driven by the Labour party, has squeezed out once-vibrant voluntary action, which therefore

in The art of the possible