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the nineteenth century.1 This essay will develop three major points: the dramatic change that occurred with the Catholic acceptance of human rights in the latter part of the twentieth century, the basis and grounding of human rights in contemporary Catholic thought, and a somewhat troubling development in the teaching of Pope John Paul II. A dramatic change The most significant change was the dramatic move from adamant opposition to human rights to strong support for human rights in the second half of the twentieth century. The Catholic Church staunchly opposed human

in Religion and rights

were more than twice as many nuns as priests, and seven times more nuns than brothers.1 There were eleven convents in Ireland in 1800, 368 a hundred years later, and convents at the dawn of the twentieth century were much larger than they had been even fifty years earlier.2 Applicants to the religious life had become so numerous by the 1890s that one Good Shepherd sister lamented; ‘The labourers are many but the harvest is lacking’ – there was not enough work, in her congregation at least, for all the candidates.3 It became common for a number of sisters from one

in Irish Catholic identities

The continued widespread belief in witchcraft and magic in nineteenth- and twentieth-century France has received considerable academic attention. Yet little of the relevant work has been published in English and, moreover, no thematic historical survey has yet been attempted to trace the continued social significance of witchcraft over the two centuries. As well as discussing the extent and nature of

in Witchcraft Continued
Abstract only
A Vatican rag

Catholicism in England in the latter half of the twentieth century, encompassing the post-war years through to the National Pastoral Congress in Liverpool in 1980. It focuses on ‘English Catholicism’, encompassing Catholics living in this region of Britain across different ethnic backgrounds, in contrast to the distinctive forms of Catholicism found in Scotland, Wales or, most particularly, in Ireland.5 These transformations in the religious identities and devotional practices of English Catholics over nearly forty years, or three different generations, are situated within

in Faith in the family
medical pluralism and the search for hegemony

Was magic an essential part of the Spanish population’s cultural repertoires for understanding and dealing with illness during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries? By ‘cultural repertoires’ is meant ‘the ways in which people have conceived and explained illness and reaction against illness’. 2 For various reasons that will be discussed, the question is difficult to answer categorically, but in attempting to

in Witchcraft Continued

of a particular system of belief, had been an important theme in Eliot’s thought from the first. What he admired in James Joyce was what Eliot called the ‘mythic imagination’: the capacity to see the history of thought and literature as a recurrent set of patterns so that, for example, the experience of Leopold Bloom, a twentieth-century Jewish Dubliner, can be seen in the same cultural perspective as Homer’s Odysseus in Ulysses. One extension of this viewpoint was the way in which Christian models of reality corresponded to contemporary secular

in Irish Catholic identities
Beyond ‘ghettos’ and ‘golden ages’

backgrounds, and educational experiences of the far from homogeneous community classed as ‘English Catholic’ throughout this book? What were 032-056 FaithFamily Ch 2.indd 32 24/04/2013 15:47 English Catholicism reconsidered33 its key religious, social and political organisations, and what importance and influence did they have within, and beyond, Catholicism? Who were its leading episcopal and intellectual figures? Following on from a historiographical survey of the nature of the English Catholic community in the middle of the twentieth century, this chapter analyses

in Faith in the family
Abstract only

crusading’s popularity as a subject for entertainment and moralising. The European dash for empire happily recruited the crusades as exemplars of cultural virtues, occasionally vices, or superiority over conquered peoples and societies. Where Enlightenment critics had concentrated their fire 4 INTRODUCTION on the moral, religious and cultural aspects of crusading, the debate in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries revolved around essentially materialist interpretations, the crusades as wars of conquest, motors of economic expansion and expressions of colonialism

in The Debate on the Crusades

-democratic tradition, Freethinking feminists tended to cohere around the radical fringes of the new suffrage organisations emerging in the early 1900s. The legacy of their commitment to female enfranchisement, which stretched back to the beginning of the nineteenth century, was, however, evident across the twentieth-century suffrage movement – informing many of its supposedly novel political practices. Freethinkers and feminists: a shared

in Infidel feminism

There were three main developments which characterised the Leeds Jewish community in the decades after the Second World War: social mobility; relocation to a new ‘unwalled ghetto’; and numerical decline. For much of the twentieth century, as previous chapters have illustrated, Leeds Jewry was predominantly a proletarian community. When the writer first came to Leeds as a student in the late 1950s, he lodged with a family in Chapeltown where the householder was a cutter at Burtons, among the elite of the skilled workers there. Thousands

in Leeds and its Jewish Community