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Paul Fouracre and Richard A. Gerberding

the confidence that this historical method inspired in its heyday. Much of the editing of the Merovingian texts in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was outstanding, and the two scholars responsible for producing the Scriptores Rerum Merovingicarum, Bruno Krusch and his pupil, Wilhelm Levison, dominated the field of Merovingian history for over a generation. Although the criteria by

in Late Merovingian France
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In search of pre-Reformation English spirituality
R. N. Swanson

involvement in chain letters or pyramid selling. As for arguments based on ‘rationality’, they presuppose that twentieth-century rationality is necessarily better than the pre-Reformation variety. Yet, from that pre-Reformation perspective, could there be anything less rational than the denial of God; and than the assumption that death did not have to be approached without doing all in one’s power to ensure

in Catholic England
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Jennifer Ward

Elizabeth used French for her protest about the Despensers in 1326 and for her will. It was not until the fifteenth century that there was extensive use of English. This use of language poses two problems of interpretation, one for the twentieth-century historian in understanding the terminology of the Middle Ages, and one for the clerks themselves who could find themselves writing what to them was not

in Women of the English Nobility and Gentry, 1066-1500
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Samuel K. Cohn, Jr

uprisings in the territories of Parma, Florence and Ferrara, which modern historians have passed over without any notice. While intended principally for students, this collection also aims to stimulate new research on popular protest in the Middle Ages. During the last quarter of the twentieth century, the comparative study of popular revolt has become an academic growth industry for early-modern, modern, and

in Popular protest in late-medieval Europe
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Monasticism in late medieval England, c. 1300–1535
Martin Heale

universally kindly and saintly monastics often advanced by pro-Catholic writers. 7 An essentially negative portrayal of late medieval monasticism remained widespread in the first half of the twentieth century, as more detailed research was carried out by scholars such as G. G. Coulton, Geoffrey Baskerville and (for the nuns) Eileen Power. 8 This negativity, in part the

in Monasticism in late medieval England, c. 1300–1535
Samuel K. Cohn, Jr

survival of a charter the insurgents imposed on the barons of Rouen (Saint-Ouën) and whose dicta remained in force for less than a twenty-four hours [ 153] , these revolts have received scant attention from recent historians. Since the work of Alphonse Chéruel published in 1843–4 and Léon Mirot at the beginning of the twentieth century, 13 they have received hardly any specialised treatment outside

in Popular protest in late-medieval Europe
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Chris Given-Wilson

maintain a measure of moral authority over its rivals. Indeed it is only in the twentieth century that these rivals have been given the attention they merit. This is especially true of the ‘Metrical History’, which is now recognised as a source of the first importance for events at Conway – the pivot of the revolution. That is not to say that Creton’s evidence is unimpeachable: his chronology, for example

in Chronicles of the Revolution, 1397–1400
Trevor Dean

-by … 11 New church building: Bologna, 1390–2 A taste for grands projets did not fade in the second half of the fourteenth century, as shown in the building of a new church in Bologna: ‘a huge urbanistic operation … without parallel in terms of scale until the twentieth century’, involving the demolition

in The towns of Italy in the later Middle Ages
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Samuel K. Cohn, Jr

’s words, the peasants were ‘brutes, drunk on wine and blood … We find nothing similar in the Jacquerie [equal to the revolt of Étienne Marcel]; these insurgents were stupid peasants, without education, training, brutalised by poverty and their own drunkenness’. 24 Surprisingly, this view has persisted among major historians into the twentieth century with Flammeront’s article used as a corrective to

in Popular protest in late-medieval Europe
Simon Barton and Richard Fletcher

Pidal’s scholarly authority was such as to persuade most readers of the accuracy of his dating for a generation or so after the first publication of La España del Cid . However, in the second half of the twentieth century many scholars have voiced reservations and proposed alternatives. The most influential protagonist of a date of composition about the middle of the twelfth century was the

in The world of El Cid