Search results

Voyages through empirical, common sense

wherever possible. 66 As Professor David Arnold has observed, Tod’s enthusiasm for Indian categories and concepts, his use of ‘ethno-botany’ or incorporation of vernacular terms, local names and indigenous topographical markers, in his allusions to Rajasthani plant species, shows his basic empathy for the region of his adoption. On the other hand, Tod always adopts a utilitarian approach to plants

in Knowledge, mediation and empire
Open Access (free)

utilitarian can be understood as an expression of an underlying ontology. (For example, Dworkin in Taking Rights Seriously (1977) argues for the integrity of legislation and principle.) Or the utilitarian approach can assume that it grasps, not a universal ontology of the human, but the principles of modern rational social progress. Within broadly liberal institutions, in practice at least, the two approaches often work in tandem. The language of universal human rights imagines it is talking to and for all the world, calling on both the persistence

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Open Access (free)

communitarian perspectives. Which of these is the most convincing? Utilitarianism The utilitarian approach has been sketched most brilliantly by Derek Parfit (1984: 377) who begins with what he calls the Non-Identity Problem (N-IP): ‘If a choice between two social policies will affect the standard of living or the quality of life for about a century, it will affect the details of all the lives that, in our community, are later lived. As a result, some of those who later live will owe their existence to our choice of one of these two policies. After one or two centuries, this

in After the new social democracy

Contagious Diseases Acts are the natural fruit of the creed I profess’. She countered their arguments, not by condemning a utilitarian approach to morality as such, but by maintaining that the ‘necessity’ of male sexual satisfaction was no such thing, and that ‘chastity is not opposed to health’. She challenged the utilitarian supporters of the Acts in their own terms. ‘Do you suppose that instinct, irresistibly impelling to vice

in Infidel feminism

depictions showed emphasis chiefly on topographical accuracy linked to military surveying and a utilitarian approach to exotic species of vegetation and geological strata. Nevertheless atmospheric effects and melancholy meditations on ruins also had their place among British visual portrayals of India around Tod’s time, as for example in scenes drawn by William Hodges and Thomas and William Daniell. 3

in Knowledge, mediation and empire
Dominant approaches

Rights (1948) gives some indication of this practical complementarity between contractarian and utilitarian approaches to rights. The language of the Universal Declaration is contractarian. The more frequent justification within UN and national policy-making bodies for upholding the rights standards set out in the Universal Declaration, however, is that most states have signed it, this signatory process being part of the essential procedures for establishing reasonable parameters of international order. The fund of imagery is contractarian while the language of

in Human rights and the borders of suffering

extensively about schooling as a facet of colonisation, breathed new life into AOF education policy as governor-general. Brévié judged increased educational provision essential in the absence of a large settler population to propel economic modernisation. His utilitarian approach to schooling precluded access to a classic French educational curriculum to all but a privileged urban

in The French empire between the wars

made: that colonial perspectives were affected by their embrace of anthropology. There was a difference between the purely utilitarian approach to ethnographic data of the administrators and that of the anthropologist. As anthropological writing became more and more the product of professionals, so the anthropological output of administrators, too, began to conform more to these new standards

in Ordering Africa
Race and pedagogy, 1883–1903

located at schooling sites. Governance efficacy brought to India over two generations earlier by Utilitarian approaches meant that bureaucratic fiat could easily be used to do some of the work. For example, Eurasian schoolgirl enrolments grew as state education efforts were ‘centralised’, away from the mofussil in the 1870s, and new, urban, English-medium schools emerged. 2

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932
Abstract only

paternalistic power, as utilitarianism shows that the duty to promote well-being is the fundamental moral claim. What is distinctive about this approach is that no limits are placed on ethical theory, as theoretical reflection, by itself, is sufficient to resolve moral conflicts and make moral judgements. More formally, the utilitarian approach to moral dilemmas is to give consequentialist principles lexical priority over non-consequentialist principles. According to Richard (R. M.) Hare, there are two levels of moral reasoning. The ‘intuitive’ level involves appeal to

in Evaluating parental power