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Re-inventing open space in Greece and Switzerland

contemporary social and productive urban landscapes by raising important issues, regarding new modes of land-​use management, green space governance and collaborative approaches. This chapter mainly focuses on the shifted meanings of the notion of open public space by referring to its openness to a diversity of uses and users that claim it and relates to spatial justice questions of access rights, power relations among actors, negotiations and the so-​called right to use and re-​appropriate land (Hackenbroch, 2013). The long tradition of allotment gardens in many European

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice
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Spaces and spectres of Ireland after NAMA

Ireland and by 2007, Ireland was producing more than twice as many units per head of population than any other European country with the exception of Spain (Kitchin et al., 2010). This was coupled with dramatic increases in both house prices (rising as much as 429 per cent in certain parts of the country between 1991 and 2007) and land prices (leaping from an average of €10,000 per hectare in 1998 to €58,400 per hectare in 2006) (Savills HOK, 2007). Mortgage debt in Ireland trebled between 2002 and 2007, rising from €47.2 billion to over €139.8 billion, while the size

in Spacing Ireland
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land. In an essay from The Spirit of the Age, William Hazlitt identified the genius of Wordsworth’s early poetry as ‘a proud humility’, taking ‘the commonest events and objects, as a test to prove that nature is always interesting from its inherent truth and beauty’.2 In the rapt attention Robinson brings to ‘the thousands of tiny trickles’ in a catchment, he similarly asserts the significance of a boggy region located far from any capital, and at the extreme western edge not only of Ireland but also of Europe. Catchments Figure 8  Map of Little Otter Creek in

in Unfolding Irish landscapes
The visual art of Tim Robinson/Timothy Drever

presents, inevitably, a view from an edge. Tim Robinson, too, is interested in marginal places. In his introduction to J. M. Synge’s The Aran Islands, he observed, ‘If Ireland is intriguing as being an island off the west of Europe, then Aran, as an island off the west of Ireland, is still more so; it is Ireland raised to the power of two.’1 I was aware, however, in Beijing in 2004, that the little spot on the global map that represented Ireland could also be read as the centre of a wider global network, depending on your value systems and your perspective. I had not

in Unfolding Irish landscapes
Making work pay

that specific cropping choices were partly motivated by the availability of cheap and plentiful labour (i.e. undocumented labour), relative to the high costs of fixed capital, as well as the high per acre income. Evidence from Irish growers suggests that the turn to specific cropping choices has also been contingent upon the availability of a migrant labour force, as borne out by the following account: It must have been the late ’90s when, suddenly, you had a rush of East Europeans and … that changed everything. What that meant, like, was that you could actually go

in Spacing Ireland

-year period from 1986 to 2006 (Lunn, Fahey and Hannan, 2010). Research has consistently found that lone parents are more likely to be from lower social classes than other parents (Lunn, Fahey and Hannan, 2010). According to European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC) data (CSO, 2009), they experience the highest at risk of poverty (35.5 per cent), deprivation (63 per cent), and consistent poverty (17 per cent) rates of any household type. These EU SILC trend data suggest that the fortunes of lone-parent families in Ireland improved over the boom

in Spacing Ireland
The restructuring of work in Britain

poor’ (Hobsbawm, 1964; Middlemas, 1979; Gospel and Palmer, 1983). The excluded workers organised their interests in more politically oriented general unions, representing workers from across different industries. This divisive and internally competitive system established the organisation of workers’ interests at a subsector craft level, and at a transsector general level, but mitigated against the emergence of industrial unions such as those characteristic of continental Europe (Visser, 1995; Fulcher, 1991; Heise, 1997). The combined effects of the historical

in Globalisation contested
Matrixial gazing in Tim Robinson’s walk-art-text practice

, but it may only be an artefact of the imagination, a confection of rumours.62 In ‘Into the Mist’, the sound of the past and the sound of history are interwoven via the matrixial, evoking the trauma of Europe’s interwar and post years, which Artaud was also so clearly imprinted by (as well as, of course, by a brutal childhood). Ettinger posits that ‘in the matrix up to a certain extent, there is an impossibility of not sharing trauma’. This is most evident in art practices which ‘in our post-Duchampian era’ dissolve ‘the oppositions between ready-made as a textual

in Unfolding Irish landscapes
Open Access (free)
Unheard voices and invisible agency

140 and frightening’ (1995: 11), and the European Commission that ‘the reorganisation of work often causes uncertainty’ (CEC, 1997: 8). Yet, the overriding assumption is that the globalisation process is a given reality, essentially separate from the social and political restructuring that is undertaken in its name, and entirely independent of the everyday thoughts and actions of workers. Indeed, in the effort to construct a discourse of opportunity and manageability, such interventions represent the agency of workers as a problem to be overcome on the path to a

in Globalisation contested
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Renegotiating the Irish border

, 2008: 97). This reticence was often shared by the Irish Government fearing the Troubles could spill across the border (which they did at times). Bradley and Birnie (2001: 66) also pointed to both jurisdictions’ peripheral geographical location on the edge of Europe and the ‘asymmetries in the roles and power of policymaking institutions’ which have hampered North-South cooperation. Despite these barriers, EU support for the borderlands (support that has grown steadily since the peace process) and the reconfiguration of the meaning of the border itself actively

in Spacing Ireland