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Relationships and issues, 1941–45
Andrew Williams

‘trying to take the leadership of an awakening Asia against the West’.3 But there is little evidence that the NWO planners really listened to the Chinese voice. China was included in a parallel process at Bretton Woods, and excluded with France from the main discussions. Neither state was represented at a high level at the Big Three Conferences until Potsdam in 1945. Third, it is acknowledged that there is a vast literature on relations between the Allies during the Second World War as an explanation of the origins of the Cold War to which we cannot hope to do justice

in Failed imagination?
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Tim Aistrope

challenged by the apparent proliferation of conspiracy theories at the rational core of modernity’s apex state. This chapter engages with approaches that move away from the paranoid style paradigm, using these resources to rethink the issue of Arab-Muslim conspiracy theory. 5 A central theme advanced in what I call the conspiracy culture literature is that conspiracy theories

in Conspiracy theory and American foreign policy
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Becoming contemporary
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

). 11 New print technologies and cheaper paper lowered the price of books – and helped ensure that Henry M. Stanley’s book How I Found Livingstone (1872) was a best-seller through the 1870s. During the 1880s a new kind of fiction literature developed rapidly in the Western world. In France, this fiction was pioneered by Alexandre Dumas and Ponson de Terrail and developed by Louis Boussenard, Jules Verne and a host of imitators. In Italy it was associated with Emilio Salgari, in Germany with Karl May and in the USA with Thomas M. Reid. In Britain it was popularized

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
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Claire Sutherland

: ‘[T]hey rediscovered Vietnamese heroes, most obviously the leaders in ancient struggles against the Chinese and the Mongols, but increasingly those who had fought the French as well’ (Marr 1981 , 252). This quote refers to Vietnamese intellectuals of the 1920s, but the trend has continued to the present day. This chapter focuses on contemporary depictions of national heroes, with reference to school textbooks. It sets out to

in Soldered states
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Kings, wars and an interstate system
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

Catholicism, confiscated Church lands, seized large landed properties and gained unprecedented economic influence. This argument hardly provides the whole answer. For the evolution of a strong state was particularly marked in France, which remained a staunchly Catholic country and where no confiscation of Church lands occurred. Other authors propose that the evolution of strong states was a function of the increased power of monarchs, Protestant as well as Catholic. In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the kings of Europe became commanders

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
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Claire Sutherland

ngữ would undermine the status of the traditional elite and bind the population to the colonial regime. On the contrary, literature and newspapers in quốc ngữ not only helped to awaken the political consciousness of the people, but also encouraged Vietnamese intellectuals to express themselves in their own idiom instead of French or Chinese. A bridge to the Vietnamese village was built; intellectuals found they could

in Soldered states
Andrew Williams

, ignorance and oppression. This Enlightenment/Romantic dialectic is at the heart of the problem that individuals are supposedly ‘free’ and yet are constrained by structures, be they religious, philosophical, economic or political. In Western political theory the idea of individual ‘rights’ arguably pre-dates that of those of the ‘community’, with the impact of the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau on the French revolutionary struggle as the point of juncture between the two. The Enlightenment had stressed the freedom of the individual, Rousseau now helped give birth to the

in Failed imagination?
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Samantha Newbery

particular responses or reactions. Existing literature on how controversial interrogation techniques come to be used explores both how official approval comes to be given and how individuals come to use such techniques without authorisation. In other instances there is an absence of explicit authorisation but the presence of official tolerance. 7 The international human rights lawyer Philippe Sands’s research

in Interrogation, intelligence and security
Twentieth-century Germany in the debates of Anglo-American international lawyers and transitional justice experts
Annette Weinke

Germany’s status as a Western ‘civilised’ power was only rarely disputed wholeheartedly, events like the Franco-German War of 1870–1 and the subsequent Prussian-led foundation of an empire nurtured a historical-philosophical discourse that accused Prussian authoritarianism of having betrayed Western values of civilisation by conducting ‘Eastern barbarianism’ into the heart of Europe. As Kim Christian Priemel shows in his tour d’horizon on the intellectual foundations of the Nuremberg Military Tribunal, influential voices in France and in the Anglophone world, like

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks
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Andrew Williams

concept of the ‘new world order’ (NWO) was chosen as the vehicle of this ambition, for reasons that I hope to make clear in this Introduction and in the book as a whole. By choosing to show the genealogy of the term since 1914, this book tries to cut the onion of international relations in two ways that should be complementary. The first five chapters are a review of both the diplomatic history and contemporaneous literature about the genesis of the NWOs of the twentieth century. They first examine both the motivations and actions of the principal political actors and

in Failed imagination?