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Institutionalisation and democractisation in Chávez’s Venezuela

classes. 1 As a result, many in those classes experience higher living standards through tighter regulation of working conditions and more access to welfare. 2 Furthermore, this contributes to a greater feeling of national consciousness, often expressed culturally through an interest in national customs, music and art. 3 On the negative side, however, which is emphasised more in the literature, this participation is not seen as genuine or thorough, but rather as a ‘pseudo-participation’ which does not lead to real structural change and

in Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian revolution
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soldiers and war dead. To some extent, these emerging alternatives are shaped by transnational tourism, international diplomacy (Kennedy & Williams 2001 ), cosmopolitan capital and the technological and social effects of globalisation (Sklair 2006 , 22). Museum exhibits are thus one example of how socialist realism, together with related understandings of science and art as serving country and communism, compete with so

in Soldered states

, meaning that they contribute to the art of testing theories developed elsewhere and sometimes reflecting other experiences and often serving other purposes. These reasons may explain why an inductive, exploratory approach has been somewhat neglected. For the purpose of theorising the CFSP I have, as mentioned above, selected two manuals in theorising (Rosenau and Durfee 1995 ; van Evera 1997 ). I use Rosenau and Durfee’s rules

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
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plant and that leaders have to bring their constituencies with them. But like all political midwives they grow concerned that too much nurturing can lead to a form of infantilism – we can see why Galtung falls back on the psychological. Indeed it is only Dermot Ahern and Maurice Hayes who can begin to properly indulge in the sunny uplands. Following the literature on peace studies it is Dr Hayes who takes the debate to a new level when he invokes so strongly the forgotten art of the creative process and the extent to which building peace is both an art and a skill. He

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century

March 2000) Another reason that makes the history of India so important, even in modern times is that it gives a fillip to the tourist industry.The cultural diversity that is found in India, including art, architecture and philosophy, attracts tourists from all over the world and also inspires Indians to travel and enjoy and learn about their cultural heritage. Before the Taliban attempted to destroy the gigantic statues of Buddha in Bamiyan in Afghanistan, not many Indians even knew that Buddhism had once flourished in what is now an Islamic country. Some of the

in India in a globalized world
Screening war in Kosovo and Chechnya

against the circulation of imagery related to war. Walter Benjamin, in a piece entitled ‘The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction’, argued that the domain of the visual had been transformed by the processes of reproduction, which now placed imagery in the realm of ‘another practice – politics’.45 One reason for this was the acceleration of the processes of reproduction; another was the interface with an economy which, when tied to the reproduction of the pictorial and located within the processes of contemporary globalisation, generates a new politicised

in Contemporary violence

activities rely on rational choice, routinisation and bureaucratic politics (Rittberger and Zangl 2006). This distinction reifies the hierarchical separation of ‘high politics’ and ‘low politics’, and thus corresponds with a widely held view of the relative importance of peace-related functions and diplomacy over social and economic activities undertaken by the UN. Thus, conventionally the peace-related functions of the Secretary-General, of which Art. 99 of the UN Charter most clearly delineates a role in the policy-making process, are referenced to demonstrate the

in The United Nations democracy agenda
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Non-international armed conflicts

prohibited’. 77 Second, imperative military reasons may provide an exception to this prohibition, but the commentary warns that ‘[m]ilitary necessity as a ground for derogation from a rule always requires the most meticulous assessment of the circumstances’ and that ‘the adjective “imperative” reduces to a minimum cases in which displacement may be ordered’. 78 However, as Bothe et al . note, ‘there is nothing in Art. 17 which precludes voluntary movement of civilians’. 79 Development Events in the Bosnian conflict

in War crimes and crimes against humanity in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
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Andrew Williams

it posits the crucial role of key individuals, and has therefore to select among a crowded stage those individuals and, occasionally, groupings that really mattered. In so doing the book has also to be selective and impressionistic. Some influences must of necessity remain occult, as the art of the biographer and historian combined cannot fully comprehend the full complexity of even one of the characters that will appear in these pages, especially as many of them were masters of the art of disguise. One defence of this elitism is that all of those involved in these

in Failed imagination?
The Indian diaspora

’s cultural influence on countries in Southeast Asia has also been noted in Chapter 1. Java was colonized by the Hindus between the first and seventh century. The Javanese were converted to Hinduism, Hindu kingdoms were formed, and an elaborate Hindu culture developed by the tenth century. Narayan argues that ‘the people of Java came to share with the Indians their religions, languages, art and architecture, their cultural mores, and legal and political ethos and forms.This area was exposed to the “heaviest Indianization”. The majority of the people of Bali island still

in India in a globalized world