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government policy. Indeed, we use the term Political Executive when referring to the government of the day, and the Official Executive when we are speaking of the bureaucracy whose task it is to administer the policies which ministers have laid down. In the first section of the chapter we are concerned with the Political Executive, in other words with the politicians rather than the civil servants. Who gets to the top? What power do they exercise? Why is that power often said to be growing? Who is more powerful, Prime Minister or President? In the second section, we

in Understanding US/UK government and politics
The power-sharing executive in operation

promises that had been made earlier in that month. The experience of being a member of the power-sharing executive was a transformative one for both Gerry Fitt and the SDLP. The executive accentuated the divisions that existed between Fitt and his party, as well as his inability to provide effective leadership. The experience also transformed Fitt’s vision of Irish nationalism. It highlighted for him that the power-sharing element of the Sunningdale Agreement was a major advance for consensus politics in Northern Ireland, and he moved to a position where a solution would

in Gerry Fitt and the SDLP

broader policy-making context by widening the focus of central government studies and applying a range of conceptual and theoretical approaches to the core executive, disclosing the fluid and relational nature of power through observing how the power of actors has changed in the process of state transformation. Elsewhere, exploring the change of governance in regulation directly relates to the state’s political and institutional capacity to steer vis-à-vis the interests of other influential actors. As a key concept within the study of regulation and governance, the

in Understanding governance in contemporary Japan
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experience, so far, of English elected mayors, it is not the story of twelve individuals, nor is it an attempt to produce a league table of efficiency in office and the quality of political leadership provided. Rather, the book considers not only the experiences of particular mayors, but also the whole notion of directly elected political leadership and its place within English governance. The book draws out broad lessons from the mayoral experiment for local government and democracy, and offers a framework for understanding direct election to executive political office within

in Leading the localities
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Lessons from overseas

pertinent to the debate about the development of the English experiment with directly elected mayors in areas such as: the power, responsibility and roles of the elected mayor; the balance of power and checks and balances between mayor and council; the prominence, or otherwise, of the elected mayor within the wider governance network; and how citizens can act as a check and balance within local politics. The Italian mayor: the search for a new style of political leadership The direct election of an executive mayor was introduced in Italy in 1993, by Law 81. There are two

in Leading the localities
The executive drama

6 Policy actors and structures: the executive drama Introduction The objective of this chapter is to outline the central political and bureaucratic framework from which Irish foreign policy is constructed and to analyse the significance of its evolution. Traditionally, Irish foreign policy has been seen as a creature of government and thus of the ministers and the departmental officials directly concerned with the pursuit of foreign policy objectives.This chapter will argue that in so far as the executive remains at the centre of the foreign policy process in

in Global citizen and European Republic
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failure of Sunningdale, Secretary of State, Merlyn Rees, said that the UWC strike had demonstrated a rise in ‘Ulster Nationalism’ that would have to be taken into account by the Westminster Government.3 In 1972, the impasse in Northern Irish politics was broken by a direct intervention of the British Government, which tried to find an alternative to the Stormont system of majority rule. However, in the aftermath of the fall of the executive, Britain was reluctant to become embroiled in imposing a system of government on Northern Ireland. While they proposed a

in Gerry Fitt and the SDLP
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explores why that was so. It also sets out an alternative vision of the development of mayoral government, and how direct election to local political executive office could have a powerful role in overcoming the problems outlined above. The first years of the mayoral experiment have produced evidence of a number of successes for individual mayors dealing with specific issues within their own councils and evidence of public satisfaction with mayoral government.2 Yet the results of the various referendums held on introducing elected mayors and the turnout at mayoral elections

in Leading the localities

. The political association serves to remove from the conduct and processes of local politics the worst excesses of party political behaviour.5 50 Leading the localities That the office of directly elected mayor has produced the potential for the dominance of local politics by parties to be undermined is not itself an indication that a new form of local politics will necessarily emerge from the mayoral experiment. Yet direct election to executive political authority also produces the conditions for a much clearer, more visible and more accountable local political

in Leading the localities

1 From direct rule to power-sharing, 1972–74 The formation of the power-sharing executive was the result of protracted political discussion and constitutional planning. The careful negotiation of the executive was the culmination of a series of political initiatives, designed by the British government, following the prorogation of the Stormont parliament. These initiatives were intended to foster an accommodation between nationalist and unionist parties. The ultimate aim was to restore to Northern Ireland a radically different form of devolved government, which

in Template for peace