to a whole.
The holistic principle of structural integration, in other words, went hand
in hand with a notion of functionaldifferentiation.
The third consequence of the reflexive ethnocentrism of classical
takes on indigenous cosmology has to do with the hierarchical way in
which it ordered different perspectives on the world, and particularly the
superiority it accorded to the cosmological project of the anthropologists
at the expense of those of the people they study. For, if what holds the
basic image together is the idea of a single and uniform world that
This book reflects the full diversity of the spirit of cosmological experimentation as an analytical impulse on the part of the anthropologist and as an ethnographic observation about the people anthropologists study. The first part of the book addresses the ways in which fresh anthropological interest in cosmology problematises traditional conceptions of holism understood as a 'totalising' discourse. The second part shows that cosmology can be seen as a functionally differentiated and distinct part of the total social order to be studied alongside other parts, including kinship, economy or politics. It shines light on the varied imbrications of cosmological concerns with political and economic practices in particular. The third part focuses on the ways in which social phenomena that a classically inclined anthropology would designate as 'modern' areas cosmologically embedded (indeed saturated) as any 'pre-modern' society ever was. It shows how the cosmological constitution of political economies is particularly bound up with the breakdown of classical dichotomies between modern science and pre-modern cosmologies. The book also reveals the abiding role that different technological forms play in sustaining cosmological concerns at the heart of contemporary life in the West. It broaches the strong affinity between cinema and cosmology in an analysis of two films concerned with the origin of humanity.
German philosopher Jürgen Habermas has written extensively on the European Union.
This is the only in-depth account of his project. Published now in a second
edition to coincide with the celebration of his ninetieth birthday, a new
preface considers Habermas’s writings on the eurozone and refugee crises,
populism and Brexit, and the presidency of Emmanuel Macron. Placing an
emphasis on the conception of the EU that informs Habermas’s political
prescriptions, the book is divided into two main parts. The first considers the
unfolding of 'social modernity' at the level of the EU. Among the
subjects covered are Habermas's concept of juridification, the
latter's affinities with integration theories such as neofunctionalism, and
the application of Habermas's democratic theory to the EU. The second part
addresses 'cultural modernity' in Europe – 'Europessimism'
is argued to be a subset of the broader cultural pessimism that assailed the
project of modernity in the late twentieth century, and with renewed intensity
in the years since 9/11. Interdisciplinary in approach, this book engages
with European/EU studies, critical theory, political theory, international
relations, intellectual history, comparative literature, and philosophy. Concise
and clearly written, it will be of interest to students, scholars and
professionals with an interest in these disciplines, as well as to a broader
readership concerned with the future of Europe
This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.
Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.
This book examines the impact that nostalgia has had on the Labour Party’s political development since 1951. In contrast to existing studies that have emphasised the role played by modernity, it argues that nostalgia has defined Labour’s identity and determined the party’s trajectory over time. It outlines how Labour, at both an elite and a grassroots level, has been and remains heavily influenced by a nostalgic commitment to an era of heroic male industrial working-class struggle. This commitment has hindered policy discussion, determined the form that the modernisation process has taken and shaped internal conflict and cohesion. More broadly, Labour’s emotional attachment to the past has made it difficult for the party to adjust to the socioeconomic changes that have taken place in Britain. In short, nostalgia has frequently left the party out of touch with the modern world. In this way, this book offers an assessment of Labour’s failures to adapt to the changing nature and demands of post-war Britain.
Democratic state, capitalist society, or dysfunctional
live in a modern,
dynamic, functionallydifferentiated society in which progressive innovation in
Critical theory and sociological theory
one system is accompanied by regression in another. Social systems divide
and converge; questions of race, class, and gender –to name but the most
prominent –are all related and yet also distinct. Some of the theoretical and
empirical literature on intersectionality is very adept at illuminating some of
the issues at stake. It reinforces the point that it is entirely possible for the
same individual to be confronted with
elements of the market-administrative system differentiated out, often beyond the influence of the lifeworld
(Habermas, 1995 : 153-6); it is in relation to modern societies that
juridification is spoken of.
Analysis of a tribe can be carried out exclusively from the system or
lifeworld perspective because market and administrative functions are structured and
conceptualised entirely in terms of the traditions of which the lifeworld is composed. Indeed,
linguistically mediated communication constitutes social structures, resulting in
units would be allowed to vary, while the distribution of functional constituencies and competencies would be rigorously fixed and separated in order to
protect members from encroachment by central authorities . . . Members would
retain their autonomy and be relatively free to enter and exit. Each could
negotiate its own differentiated relation to the unit as a whole, but, once a
member, would be strictly bound to contribute to the few, cumulative and coincident functions devolved upon central institutions, e.g. common currency,
liberalisation of trade flows
meaning serves as the structural invariant, and
the input of information contributes to the initiation of communication within
the system. To a certain extent, systems are differentiation. What constitutes
a system is its ability to differentiate and construct a whole array of functions
that allow it to ‘happen’. Autopoiesis comes as a secondary innate process
that solidifies that a system produces and, contrary to misunderstandings
in Luhmann, does not reproduce functional and communicative processes.
A system keeps producing itself in terms of new structures and