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the same time, Labour’s constituency, rooted in the new technocratic-entrepreneurial middle class, was embracing an economic strategy of globalisation and viewed peace negotiations as crucial to overcoming Israel’s poor record in attracting investment and to breaking out of the international diplomatic isolation which obstructed its access to markets (Solingen 1998). However, it took global transformation and a watershed election to stimulate a new peace initiative in Israel. The end to the Arabs’ Soviet patron, the defeat of Iraq and the grave

in The international politics of the Middle East

process disrupted a multiplicity of regional ties while reorienting many economic and communications links to the Western ‘core’. In reaction, new supra-state ideologies, expressive of the lost cultural unity, were increasingly embraced: Pan-Arabism by the Arabic-speaking middle class and political Islam among the lower middle classes. Both, at various times, challenged the legitimacy of the individual states and spawned movements promoting the unification of states as a cure for the fragmentation of the recognised community. The result has been that the Arab world

in The international politics of the Middle East
The honour of public service

‘never a badge or an ornament to make others uncomfortable, but always a star he checked to set his own course’. MUP_Hume_Peacemaking.indd 34 11/10/2013 15:25 Thomas P. ‘Tip’ O’Neill Jr. 35 He was proudest of the fact that, during his life time, Democrats had passed legislation to build the middle class. By the time of his retirement in 1986, poverty in America had been reduced to 10 per cent. In describing Tip’s bedrock beliefs, Senator Ted Kennedy said, ‘He was never afraid to speak out for the average man and woman – the worker trying to keep a job, the child

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
Institutionalisation and democractisation in Chávez’s Venezuela

, referring once again to the Fujimori presidency for comparative purposes. The chapter will then end with a number of concluding observations. The consequences and impact of populism Introduction As explained in Chapter 1 , the literature identifies two main consequences of populism in Latin America, one positive and one negative. On the positive side there is, according to some analysts, increased popular participation, and greater assertiveness and organisation of the popular and middle

in Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian revolution
Abstract only
A civilian airliner in the firing line

demonstrations. For Ukraine, the agreement would have had grave economic consequences, but in the eyes of many, especially the urban middle classes, Yanukovich’s readiness to accept a Russian counteroffer was a missed chance to stop the plunder by the oligarchy, by then including the president’s family. As I  argue in Chapter  3, the armed seizure of power on 22 February 2014 occurred on the back of these demonstrations and put state power in the hands of Ukrainian ultra-​nationalists and actual fascists. The EU, which had mediated between the president and the opposition

in Flight MH17, Ukraine and the new Cold War
Simone de Beauvoir and a Global Theory of Feminist Recognition

portrayal of woman as the Inessential Other appears strongly cosmopolitan in its universalist aspiration, certain third-wave feminists later charged her with drawing only on her own ‘First-World’, middle-class context (Spelman 1990 ). Furthermore, although Beauvoir might be read as seeking to embolden women to overcome a subordinate sexual identity, her feminist proposal has been thought a ‘masculine’ ideal, and

in Recognition and Global Politics

’s the whole thing of, this is what the middle class women are going to do, and that’s all very well and good, but people like me, no, for three reasons: one, incest; two, violence; and three, being queer.1 Allison’s experiences as a young student at a time when the feminist movement was mobilising and working towards the Equal Rights Amendment expose the now well-​documented concerns raised by minority women about feminist movements in the twentieth century ignoring issues of intersectionality and echo the anxiety of lesbian Chicana writer Gloria Anzaldúa who, in

in Crossing borders and queering citizenship

, significant numbers in refugee camps in Lebanon and Syria, and smaller numbers in Egypt and the Gulf. The loss of Palestine threatened Palestinians, now a stateless people, with the loss of their identity. However, the Palestinian Diaspora throughout the Middle East produced a stratum of politically active intellectuals who helped radicalise the rising middle-class nationalist movements in the various Arab countries and kept the Palestinian cause at the top of political agendas. The refugee camps became the crucible of the Palestinian resistance movement, reservoirs of

in The international politics of the Middle East
Context, causes, characteristics and consequences

, such as the domestic industrial classes, the industrial working classes or the bureaucratic and mercantile middle classes. It is interventionist, state-led, and distributivist. 10 According to some, such as Dornbusch and Edwards, and Sachs, these policies historically ignored risks to inflation, balance of payments and debt. As such they were ‘fiscally irresponsible’, leading to the economic crises of the 1980s, the so-called ‘lost decade’ of Latin America which produced zero growth, runaway inflation and huge international debt repayments

in Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian revolution

the UK finds that the rapid growth of environmental and conservation groups, such as Friends of the Earth UK, the National Trust or the RSPB, is explained by the better targeting of the ‘predisposed’ and middle-class because they can afford membership (Jordan and Maloney 1997). In the US, Jeffrey Berry accepts that national citizen groups ‘require no active involvement on the part of their members’, but defends the democratic value of mass-membership citizen groups (1999, 389). He argues that they ‘are an instrumental part of modern American democracy, and they

in Groups, representation and democracy