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Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

masse, might be able to bring pressure to bear to relieve suffering (mobilised citizens in the West) to think that something is being done so they need not act nor feel guilty. Donations are given instrumentally, to prevent migration, and as the wages of sin, a palliative for guilt and shame. Humanitarian actions might help prevent armies of the dispossessed from flooding the shores of the wealthy by keeping those who suffer ‘over there’. Whatever the reasons, the fact that international and local NGOs are heroically working to deal with the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Rescaling migration, citizenship, and rights

Recent debates over migration, refuge, and citizenship are challenging the assumed primacy of the nation-state as the key guarantor of rights and entitlements. Sanctuary Cities and Urban Struggles makes the first sustained intervention into exploring how such considerations of citizenship, rights, and mobility are recast when examined from different spatial scales. The collection brings together discussions from across political geography, urban geography, citizenship studies, socio-legal studies, and refugee studies to explore the role of urban social movements, localised practices of belonging and rights claiming, and diverse articulations of sanctuary in reshaping where and how responses to the governance of migration are articulated. Working from the intimate relations of the body and interpersonal accounts of sanctuary, through to strategies for autonomous settlement as part of Europe’s ‘summer of migration’, the collection sets out to challenge the often assumed primacy of the nation-state as the dominant lens through which to understand questions of citizenship and mobility. In its place, Sanctuary Cities and Urban Struggles proposes not a singular alternative, but rather a set of interlocking sites and scales of political practice and imagination, all of which respond to, and variously rework, the governmental demands of the contemporary nation-state. Mixing empirical cases and conceptualisations that move beyond ‘seeing like a state’, this collection will be of interest to geographers, political sociologists, migration scholars, social anthropologists, and urbanists.

The Janus face of EU migration and visa policies in the neighbourhood
Igor Merheim-Eyre

12 Igor Merheim-Eyre The EU and the European Other: the Janus face of EU migration and visa policies in the neighbourhood In 1992, as war and suffering tore through the disintegrating Yugoslavia, ‘Europe’ faced the biggest refugee and migration crisis since the Second World War. Germany alone admitted 350,000 refugees and was processing a further 438,000 applications. It was further estimated that around 500,000 illegal migrants entered Italy via North Africa and the Balkans (Torpey in Andreas and Snyder, 2000: 44–45). ‘The burden on the host countries is

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood
Rescaling migration, citizenship, and rights
Jonathan Darling and Harald Bauder

Migration, and the attendant questions of rights, entitlements, and citizenship that emerge alongside it, is typically positioned as a political challenge for the nation-state. From the perspective of a territorially bound sovereign authority, migration poses fundamental questions of inclusion, identification, and border enforcement. The acceleration of migration, transnational connections, and the hybridisation of identities associated with globalisation has served to further challenge the ability of nation-states to effectively order

in Sanctuary cities and urban struggles
The Indian diaspora
Sagarika Dutt

, Singhvi noted that ‘dual citizenship does not mean dual allegiance … it will be permitted only for members of the Indian diaspora who satisfy the conditions and criteria laid down in the legislation to be enacted to amend the relevant sections of the Citizenship Act, 1955’ (Khan, 2002). International migration from the Indian subcontinent Castles and Miller argue that ‘international migration is not an invention of the late twentieth century, nor even of modernity in its twin guises of capitalism and The Indian diaspora colonialism. Migrations have been part of human

in India in a globalized world
Abstract only
Migrants’ squats as antithetical spaces in Athens’s City Plaza
Valeria Raimondi

From EU to Greece: regulating migrant spatialities The current so-called refugee crisis has led to difficulties in several European Union (EU) member states that, since 2015, have struggled to cope with the increased influx of migrants. This situation has led to repeated attempts to implement migration policies that have created division in the EU itself. This is due, among other things, to the uncertainty caused by the redefinition of the increasingly contested asylum system (Campesi, 2018a ; Klepp, 2010

in Sanctuary cities and urban struggles
Sanctuary and security in Toronto, Canada
Graham Hudson

questions about the governance of migration are inextricably bound up with questions about the governance of security; nor do they fully appreciate that the tendency of cities to govern through broad discretionary powers provides fertile ground for the projection of exclusionary power, regardless of what formal laws may state. As a wave of sanctuary city policies moves across Canada, there is mounting evidence that local authorities frequently participate in the enforcement of immigration laws in the contexts of policing, education, employment, shelters, and hospitals

in Sanctuary cities and urban struggles
M. Anne Visser and Sheryl-Ann Simpson

2006, Hazleton had become a site of secondary migration for emigrants from Spanish-speaking Caribbean, Central American, and South American countries such as the Dominican Republic. While many of the new residents in Hazleton had first settled in larger centres such as New York, Philadelphia, and areas in New Jersey, they were drawn to the smaller city by a lower cost of living and employment opportunities in the processing and logistics service industry. This included positions at a Cargill meat-packing plant and various retail warehouses (Martinez, 2011 ). Yet

in Sanctuary cities and urban struggles
Between policy, practice, and politics
Janika Kuge

context, insurgent urban citizenship was not only organised by civil and clerical activists but partly also by local governments (Lippert, 2005 : 383; Mancina, 2016 : 9). This is a powerful example of grassroots movements directly challenging national migration and citizenship policies and attempting to implement at a city scale what had before been limited to church premises. Furthermore, the struggle for urban inclusion can be substantially connected to civil rights movements and their seditious ‘acts of citizenship’ (Rygiel, 2010 : 41) on behalf of other

in Sanctuary cities and urban struggles
Europeanisation and its twenty-first-century contradictions

The European Union (EU) is faced by the Eurozone crisis, the rise of anti-EU populism and 'Brexit'. In its immediate neighbourhood it is confronted by a range of challenges and threats. This book explores the origins of the term 'Europeanisation' and the way in which its contemporary iteration-EU-isation-has become associated with the normative power of the EU. The concept of European identity is discussed, with an indication that there are different levels of identity of which a European consciousness can be just one. An overview of different mechanisms the EU uses to promote EU-isation in the neighbourhood and a discussion on the limits of conditionality when membership is not on offer is also included. The book discusses these themes in more detail. It powerfully states the salience of Russia in establishing an alternative geopolitical pole to the EU. The presence of Russia as the Eurasian Economic Union appears to play the role of being a way of preserving traditional conservative values in contrast to the uncomfortable challenges of EU-isation. The Balkans' and Turkey's reception of EU-isation is not affected by the experience of being in-betweeners. The book examines the issue of EU-isation and the relationship between values (norms), interests and identity based on various sectors/themes which cut across different neighbours and are core elements in their relations with the EU.