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refutations through plurivalent dialogue, because it is the non-​identical that knowledge seeks to manifest.13   3 7 1 Conclusions 173 For the second generation of critical theorists, and Habermas in particular, critical temptations take the form of praxis. But the realization of theory does not suffice to praxis but to the rational praxis that dialectics prepares. The latter point marks the modern epistemological objective of critical theory in stark contrast to the scientific theorizing of phenomenology, structuralists, postmodernists, Luhmann and critical realists

in Critical theory and epistemology
On mediated unity and overarching legal-political form

phenomenology of worldly forms structuring human life in society. If it is true that nature cannot know nature, that is, if a fully natural entity has no other perspective apart from a natural one that is unreliable because it is dependent on its own, necessarily biased account of itself, the question arises as to how humanity can be known, if human self-​ knowledge does not suffice to comply with the epistemological demands of objectivity. In this case, the analogy with nature holds: a fully natural account of nature is as unsatisfactory as a fully human account of humanity

in Critical theory and sociological theory
The logics of ‘hitting the bottom’

point for such an analysis is a strict division of psychological processes from social processes, both of which are held accountable for the production of meaning in their own right. Luhmann's greatest achievement was to complement the Husserlian phenomenology of consciousness with an independent phenomenology of communication (not to replace the former with the latter!). This led to a typical doubling of

in Critical theory and legal autopoiesis
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that critical theory was initially conceived in terms of a staunch intellectual resistance to fascism and as a warning against historically new forms of authoritarian populism. But it also developed as a response to some of the methodological inadequacies of neo-​Kantianism, positivism, Marxism-​ Leninism, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, and other epistemological currents that emerged in the wake of the crises of idealism and Marxism. This book attempts to retain and update the founders’ belief that epistemological questions are framed by sociological and historical

in Critical theory and sociological theory
Case studies from the Victorian period

Select Committee on Habitual Drunkards, Together with the Proceedings, Minutes of Evidence, Appendix and Index (1872) (Shannon, Ireland: Irish University Press, 1968), p. 3. 2 In doing so it is largely contrary to Mariana Valverde’s argument in Diseases of the Will (Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 1998), which urges historians to see the (philosophical) idea of ‘habit’ as a pragmatic guide to understanding alcoholism, for example pp. 68–​9. Valverde dismisses philosophical approaches which emphasise the role of the will: ‘From Heidegger to phenomenology and

in The Existential drinker
Open Access (free)
Art as the ‘organ of philosophy’

be separate from me, even though I have no cognitive access to it. The ‘imagination’ itself therefore has a history: the actions which lead to its development can be traced by reflection upon the actions it now performs. This history starts from the lowest form of sensation, in which there is a difference between one thing and its other, and rises to the highest point of being able to reflect philosophically upon the relationship of thinking to what exists. Philosophy, argues Schelling, in a view usually attributed to Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit, must be concerned

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
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and, in an even more impressive way, to Husserlian phenomenology. Luhmann shifted the focus of attention from the subject of the phenomenological study to the phenomenality of the world, which he brought forward as forming systems’ realization and action.7 However, he grasped the epistemological deficits of systems’ perception, and attempted to fill in the gaps with the following three major contributions. (a) Systems are formed because they bear boundaries of their forms; in this way, Luhmann demonstrated systems’ epistemological indispensability. (b) Systems are

in Critical theory and epistemology
Open Access (free)
Time and space

,” variously named as “trans-modernity,” “border knowledge,” and “de-colonial perspectives.” 50 At the same time, these ethically segregated entities continue to enact, within a shared historical stage, a principled drama, an endless clash between good and bad, virtue and evil, morality and immorality. Moreover, while Dussel’s original claims concerned a supersession of phenomenology by an ethically oriented

in Subjects of modernity
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In the spirit of the gift of love

theology in the orthodox sense, but as kind of theo-phenomenology, a theology of the body. As we will see specifically in Chapter 5, and passim in Chapters 3 and 4, for Cixous an otherlove that is other-regarding is also a feminine love. Moreover, in a feminine relation to the other lies the possibility of divinity; something she has often described as a ‘second innocence’. Her conception of a feminine economy of desire that is the basis of this other-regarding love is grounded not in the teleology of an other who is other-for-me, but rather in an other who is beyond and

in The subject of love
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rejects the systematic side of Hegel in favour of a Conclusion 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 333 (Romantic) open-ended dialectic, he would not make the distinction between the public and the private in exactly the way Hegel does. For example, he regards the Phenomenology in much the same way as I do, that is, as in some respects being more significant as a ‘private’ text. My difference from Rorty is described below. In some respects this is reminiscent of Kant’s idea, in the Foundation of the Metaphysics of Morals, that we can never finally know if we act morally, as there

in Aesthetics and subjectivity