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Britons and Irish imperial culture in nineteenth-century India

people (including many other marginalised non-Anglican Protestant groups such as Irish Presbyterians and Methodists) were never quite comfortable with a ‘British’ designation, and did not necessarily see themselves as such. In this sense, late eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Ireland was never an homogenous economic, political or religious entity whose historic relationship with Britain was

in The cultural construction of the British world

British and later allowed Indian nationalists to exploit the raj. 2 Their longstanding presence in India meant that they were more indigenised than most Western religious orders and could draw upon many links with Indian intellectuals and educators. 3 From the seventeenth century onwards, these interactions had been so powerful that the Vatican had, at times, felt compelled to require the

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932

links with Anglicanism, with Scottish Presbyterianism and with Congregationalism. At other times missionaries were ecumenical in their remembering. In what might seem un-Protestant fashion they came to value relics associated with Livingstone, provided by his family and others. They also participated in national acts of commemoration, secular as well as religious, and in public

in Sites of imperial memory
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The Neuendettelsau missionaries’ encounter with language and myth in New Guinea

] languages. 3 The barbaric-versus-civilised discourse of this short text is of course both familiar and noteworthy. And it echoed the views of German contemporaries: In 1885, to give but one example, the former director of the Rhenish Mission Society, Friedrich Fabri (1824–91), wrote that German missionaries were ideally positioned to reshape the ‘mentality, intelligence and moral and religious conceptions of uncivilized, still barbaric peoples’. 4

in Savage worlds

community that had grown up in the wake of the dramatic religious revivals that had occurred in parts of Germany, Switzerland, Austria, France, England, Wales, Scotland and the American colonies spanning a twenty-year period from the later 1720s to the closing years of the 1740s. 2 Benefiting from population increases and enhanced demographic mobility, the opening up of new trade routes and markets, the growth of consumer demand and the extension of the reach of the tentacles of empire, these religious awakenings brought like

in Wales and the British overseas empire
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missionaries had to co-operate with Indians as intermediaries for the purpose of carrying out further conversions, as Heike Liebau carefully demonstrated in the case of the Tranquebar Mission. 11 Within the emerging religious communities of mixed ethnicity, German identity survived. One indication of this was the development of German families over several generations so that some of those recognised

in The Germans in India

sensibility, heavily derived from Scott, to the African landscape, incorporating it into European aesthetic and literary norms. 1 Once in the capital, he joined a group of Scots who were busily creating the intellectual and religious institutions of the colony, who were involved in the formation of various companies and economic ventures, and who were usually locked in combat with the Governor, Lord Charles Somerset. Indeed, it may be

in The Scots in South Africa

religious services. 12 Many doctors shared Norris's view and in all three British missions medicine expanded rapidly and became increasingly hospital-based in the early part of the twentieth century. 13 The most modern institution in the protectorate could be found in Blantyre: St Luke's Hospital, a mission hospital funded partly by colonial employers and the State

in Medicine, mobility and the empire

Racism, orientalism, Christianity and contact The German religious communities which emerged in India during the nineteenth century point to the complex relationships which existed between the migrants from Europe and indigenous people. On the one hand, some type of racial hierarchy appears to have operated in which the Germans (and other Europeans

in The Germans in India

supposedly avoiding unnecessary competition with whites. Their educational policies were also designed to be self-sustaining, by producing ‘Native Agents’ – African teachers to spread the educational word, agricultural demonstrators to create a market-oriented farming mentality, and catechists for further conversion – the triple prerequisite of the religious objectives. But we

in The Scots in South Africa